FIFTH ANNIVERSARY OF THE ROYAL AND HASHEMITE ORDER OF THE PEARL

Dedicated to

His Majesty

Muedzul Lail Tan Kiram

Sultan of Sulu and North Borneo

Grand Sayyid of

The Royal and Hashemite Order of the Pearl etc.

 

His Majesty Muedzul-Lail Tan Kiram Sultan of Sulu and North Borneo

FIFTH ANNIVERSARY OF

THE ROYAL AND HASHEMITE ORDER OF THE PEARL

 

Five years ago, His Majesty Muedzul Lail Tan Kiram 35th Legitimate Sultan of Sulu and North Borneo decided, to use His sovereignty right of fons honorum, to create The Royal and Hashemite Order of the Pearl. This decision undoubtedly presented continuity of the ancient customs of the Royal Sultanate of Sulu.

 

During previous five years, The Royal and Hashemite Order of the Pearl (further: The Order) developed into significant international organization, based in Sulu. Members of Order’s six grades are citizens of various countries across the globe.

 

As any organization, during its past, The Order had some good, and some hard times. But, under wise leadership of its Grand Sayyid, all difficulties have been gradually overcome. Many tasks were done by The Order and for The Order, during previous five years.

 

Since its foundation, a significant number of Royalty, Nobility, Prelates and other distinguished persons became members of this Order.

 

Among distinguished members of The Order are: HRH Dom Duarte Pio Duke of Braganza Head of the Royal House of Portugal, HIRH Archduke Josef Karl von Habsburg, HRH Princess Margaret of Hohenberg, HRH Prince Vladimir Karageorgevich, HRH Princess Jelisaveta Karageorgevich, HRH Princess Brigitta Karageorgevich, HRH Princess Luciana Pallavicini Hassan, HM Omukama (King) Solomon Iguru I Babiito, HRH Prince Davit Bagrationi Mukhran Batonishvili Head of the Royal House of Georgia, HIH Prince Ermias Sahle Selassie, HRH Princess Mahera Hassan, HRH Prince Osman Rifat Ibrahim, HH Datu Cheong Ming Lam, HE Lech Wałęsa former Polish President and Nobel Prize Laureate, Hussin U. Amin Mayor of Jolo, Noble Dr. Pier Felice degli Uberti, Reverend Professor Noel Cox, Don Diego de Vargas-Machuca, Marquis of Vatolla, Marquis Don Maurizio Ferrante Gonzaga del Vodice di Vescovato, HE Datu Sadja Michael Y. Medvedev, Noble Stanislav Vladimirovich Dumin, Hon. Edsir Q. Tan Vice Mayor of Jolo, Colonel Romulo Quemado II, General Joriel Cenabre, as well as some others.

 

Sadly, some of our dear distinguished members passed away, during these five years. Among them was His Royal Highness Prince Alexander Pavlov Karageorgevich, Royal Companion of The Order, who passed away in 2016.

 

***

 

We hope, and we believe, that The Royal and Hashemite Order of the Pearl will be led successfully by its Grand Sayyid, His Majesty Muedzul Lail Tan Kiram Sultan of Sulu, and His descendants, for many years and centuries.

 

 

Aleksandar Bačko GCPS

Lord Registrar of

The Royal and Hashemite Order of the Pearl

 

Advertisements
FIFTH ANNIVERSARY OF THE ROYAL AND HASHEMITE ORDER OF THE PEARL

О наслеђивању султанске титуле Сулуа

Посвећено Његовом Величанству Муедзул Лаил Тан Кираму,

35. Султану Сулуа

Поглавару Краљевског Дома Султаната Сулу

Сведоци смо бројних покушаја релативизације процеса наслеђивања султанске титуле у Султанату Сулу. Ови покушаји непрестано се лансирају од стране бројних самозваних претендената на султански престо ове острвске монархије.1

На првом месту ћемо се осврнути на досадашњу праксу наслеђивања ове титуле у Султанату Сулу, током 20. века. На старије примере из богате прошлости овог Султаната нећемо обраћати пажњу, у првом реду због чињенице, да су и они били веома слични примерима из 20. века.2

У 20. век Суланат Сулу ушао је под вођством султана Џамалул Кирама II, који је владао у периоду 1894 – 1936. године. Он је имао само ћерке, које су доживеле зрело животно доба.3

После смрти султана Џамалула Кирама II, за султана је проглашен његов брат, Мувалил Васит II, који је до тада био принц престолонаследник. Он је, међутим, умро током исте године (1936), пре него што је био и формално крунисан за султана.4

У периоду 1937 – 1950. године постојало је неколико претендената на престо Султаната Сулуа. Један од њих био је Амирул Умара I, подржаван од стране Јапанаца. Он је био зет султана Џамалула Кирама II (муж његове усвојене ћерке Пиандао). Други је био Џаинал Абирин. Њега су подржавале америчке снаге.5

Султан Есмаил Кирам I, био је најстарији син султана Мувалил Васита II. Пре доласка на престо, био је принц престолонаследник. Био је на челу Султаната Сулуа у периоду од 24 године, између 1950. и 1974. Био је признат од стране филипинске владе.6

Године 1974, након смрти султана Есмаила Кирама I, на престолу га је наследио његов најстарији син, султан Махакутах Кирам. За време владавине свог оца, Махакутах Кирам био је принц престолонаследник.7

У време крунисања Махакутаха Кирама, његов најстарији син, Муедзул Лаил Тан Кирам, проглашен је за принца престолонаследника Султаната Сулу. Тадашњи филипински председник Фердинанд Маркос посебним указом је потврдио крунисање новог султана и именовање новог престолонаследника. О овоме постоје документи који су публиковани на званичној интернет презентацији Султаната Сулу, а у новије време они су поменути и у службеном гласнику Републике Филипини.8

Султан Махакутах Кирам преминуо је 1986. године. Тада је требало, да на престо султаната дође султан Муедзул Лаил Тан Кирам, како по свом наследном праву првородног султановог сина, тако и по поменутом проглашењу за принца престолонаследника из 1974. године. Међутим, због нестабилних политичких прилика у земљи, као и због његове младости, до званичног крунисања није дошло. Тада, као и у годинама и деценијама које су следиле, појавио се велики броја особа, које су неосновано претендовале на султански престо Сулуа.9

Међу овим самозваним претендентима неки су краљевске крви, односно припадници веома бројне династије Кирам, попут: датуа (принца) Фуада Кирама, Џамалула Кирама III, или Есмаила Кирама II. Други су, опет били рођени у породицама које нису биле ни краљевског, ни племићког порекла, што им није сметало да искажу своје претензије на престо.10

Оваква ситуација је и формално окончана крунисањем легалног и традиционалног наследника престола Султаната Сулу, султана Муедзула Лаила Тан Кирама, 16. септембра 2012. године.11

Чак и после историјског чина крунисања султана Муедзула Лаила Тан Кирама, подржаног од стране Краљевског савета (Ruma Bichara), имама исламске заједнице Сулуа, локалних првака и народа Сулуа, поједини самозванци нису се одрекли својих претензија на султанску титулу.12

Користећи своје легитимно право, султан Муедзул Лаил Тан Кирам основао је, у складу са старим традицијама султаната, Краљевски и Хашемитски ред бисера. Овај ред је признат у међународним краљевским, племићким и стручним круговима. Међу његовим бројним истакнутим припадницима овде ћемо поменути само неке: краљ Бунјоро-Китаре Соломон Игуру I, краљ Руанде Кигели V, старешина португалског краљевског дома Дуарте Пио од Браганце, старешина краљевског дома Грузије Давид Багратион, етиопски царски принц Ермиас Сахле Селасије, чланови појединих краљевских и кнежевских кућа, попут Карађорђевића, Хабсбурга, принчева Авганистана, Египта, Хајдерабада и других. Припадник овог реда је и бивши пољски председник, нобеловац Лех Валенса.13

Поједине релевантне међународне организације, попут Међународне комисије за витешке редове (International Commission for Orders of Chivalry), Августанског друштва (Augustan Society) и других, недвосмислено признају Муедзула Лаила Тан Кирама, као јединог легитимног султана Сулуа и као једину особу у овом султанату, која данас има право оснивања витешких редова, односно ордена.14

За разлику од Краљевског и Хашемитског реда бисера, поједини самозвани претенденти покушавају да промовишу некакве измишљене „титуле“ и „ордене“, чија имена се заснивају претежно на европским, а не на традицијама Сулуа. Они, пошто нису легитимни носиоци титуле султана, нити поглавари краљевског дома Кирам, немају права на такве потезе. Њихове такозване „титуле“ и „ордени“ нису признати ни од једне релевантне међународне организације.15

Султан Муедзул Лаил Тан Кирам је признат и уважен од стране чланова великог броја светских династија. Он је и носилац већег броја страних одликовања. Међу њима највиши ордени краљевских кућа: Бунјоро-Китаре (Уганда), Грузије, Руанде, Вијетнама и Етиопије.16

Ако се све наведено узме у обзир, сасвим је јасно, да је једини легитимни и прави султан Сулуа Муедзул Лаил Тан Кирам. Као најстарији син последњег до сада неоспораваног султана Сулуа, једини полаже легитимно право на престо свог покојног оца. Још у својој раној младости, у време очевог крунисања за султана, био је постављен за принца престолонаследника. Сви легитимни султани Сулуа у 20. веку првобитно су носили ту титулу. Његово постављење потврдио је и тадашњи филипински председник Фердинанд Маркос. Такође, султан Муедзул Лаил Тан Кирам је унук султана Есмаила Кирама I, а праунук султана Мувалила Васита II. Крунисан је 16. септембра 2012. године, уз подршку и сагласност Краљевског савета, имама исламске заједнице Сулуа, као и народа Сулуа. Ово су чињенице, које самозвани претенденти на престо Султаната и њихови следбеници намерно релативизују, зарад сопствених интереса.

АЛЕКСАНДАР БАЧКО OPS

март 2013.

Напомена – овај текст је први пут објављен на интернет презентацији Центра за истраживање православнога монархизма www.czipm.org

Извори и литература

  1. Подаци са интернет презентације http://www.royalsultanateofsulu.org/#!sultan-of-sulu (у даљем тексту: Sultan of Sulu); http://www.royalsultanateofsulu.org/#!history (у даљем тексту: History); http://www.royalsultanateofsulu.org/#!news (у даљем тексту: News); http://www.prlog.org/12087667-official-gazette-of-the-republic-of-the-philippines-publishes-official-list-of-sultans-of-sulu.html (у даљем тексту: Prlog); http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muedzul_Lail_Tan_Kiram (у даљем тексту: Wikipedia, Muedzul Lail Tan Kiram); http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_sultans_of_Sulu (у даљем тексту: Wikipedia, List of Sultans of Sulu).
  2. http://pcdspo.gov.ph/downloads/PDF-for-download_Succession-Line_A4.pdf (у даљем тексту: Succession-Line); Prlog; Wikipedia, List of Sultans of Sulu; Sultan of Sulu; History.
  3. Succession-Line; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Royal_House_of_Sulu (у даљем тексту: Wikipedia, Royal House of Sulu); Wikipedia, List of Sultans of Sulu; Sultan of Sulu; History.
  4. Succession-Line; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sultanate_of_Sulu (у даљем тексту: Wikipedia, Sultanate of Sulu); Wikipedia, Royal House of Sulu; Wikipedia, List of Sultans of Sulu; Sultan of Sulu; History.
  5. Wikipedia, Royal House of Sulu; Wikipedia, List of Sultans of Sulu; Sultan of Sulu; History.
  6. Succession-Line; Wikipedia, Sultanate of Sulu; Wikipedia, Royal House of Sulu; Wikipedia, Royal House of Sulu; Wikipedia, List of Sultans of Sulu; Sultan of Sulu; History; History.
  7. Succession-Line; Prlog; Wikipedia, Sultanate of Sulu; Wikipedia, Royal House of Sulu; Wikipedia, List of Sultans of Sulu; Sultan of Sulu; History; News.
  8. http://www.royalsultanateofsulu.org/#!news/vstc7=legal-documents; Succession-Line; Prlog; Wikipedia, Sultanate of Sulu; Wikipedia, Muedzul Lail Tan Kiram; Wikipedia, Royal House of Sulu; Wikipedia, List of Sultans of Sulu; Sultan of Sulu; History; News.
  9. Succession-Line; Prlog; Wikipedia, Sultanate of Sulu; Wikipedia, Muedzul Lail Tan Kiram; Wikipedia, Royal House of Sulu; Wikipedia, Royal House of Sulu; Wikipedia, List of Sultans of Sulu; Sultan of Sulu; History; News.
  10. http://www.royalsultanateofsulu.org/#!news/vstc7=revoke-appointment-of–fuad-a-kiram; Succession-Line; Prlog; Wikipedia, List of Sultans of Sulu; Sultan of Sulu; History.
  11. http://www.royalsultanateofsulu.org/#!news/vstc7=35th-sultan-of-sulu-is-crowned; Prlog; Wikipedia, Muedzul Lail Tan Kiram; Wikipedia, List of Sultans of Sulu; http://www.czipm.org/new-sultan-of-sulu.html.
  12. Succession-Line; Prlog; Wikipedia, Muedzul Lail Tan Kiram; Wikipedia, List of Sultans of Sulu.
  13. http://www.royalsultanateofsulu.org/#!order-of-the-pearl ; http://www.royalsultanateofsulu.org/#!news/vstc7=sovereignty; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Royal_and_Hashemite_Order_of_the_Pearl; http://www.ordenskreuz.com/sulu.htm; http://salondeltrono.blogspot.co.uk/2011/11/la-orden-de-la-perla-del-real-sultanato.html; http://augustansociety.org/cpage.php?pt=50 (у даљем тексту: Augustan Society); http://www.aber.ac.uk/en/law-criminology/staffdirectory/noc1/; http://www.idtg.org/archive/1650-heraldic-privileges-of-the-royal-and-hashemite-order-of-the-pearl/; http://www.czipm.org/heraldic-sulu.html; http://www.czipm.org/biserni-vitezovi-eng.html.
  14. Wikipedia, Sultanate of Sulu; http://www.100enonpiu100.info/programma2012.htm (у даљем тексту: Programma 2012); Augustan Society; http://www.royalsultanateofsulu.org/#!news/vstc7=“il-mondo-del-cavaliere“-no.44; http://www.royalsultanateofsulu.org/#!news/vstc7=silatnas-2011-invitation; http://www.icocregister.org/index.htm.
  15. Augustan Society.
  16. http://www.royalsultanateofsulu.org/#!news/vstc7=ballo-dei-cento-e-non-più-cento; http://www.royalsultanateofsulu.org/#!news/vstc7=treaty-of-friendly-relations; Wikipedia, Muedzul Lail Tan Kiram; Programma 2012.
О наслеђивању султанске титуле Сулуа

ABOUT SUCCESSION OF THE TITLE OF SULTAN OF SULU

Dedicated to His Majesty Muedzul Lail Tan Kiram 35th Sultan of Sulu

Head of the Royal House of The Sultanate of Sulu

His Majesty Muedzul-Lail Tan Kiram Sultan of Sulu and North Borneo

 

We are witnessing numerous attempts to relativize the process of succession of title of Sultan in the Sultanate of Sulu. These attempts are constantly being launched by a number of self-styled Sultans, pretenders to the throne of this island monarchy.1

Firstly, we will consider practice of succession of this title in the Sultanate of Sulu, during the 20th century. Older examples from the rich history of the Sultanate will not be considered, primarily because of the fact, that they were very similar to examples from the 20th century.2

In the beggining of the 20th century, Sulanate of Sulu was under the leadership of Sultan Jamalul Kiram II, who ruled between 1894. and 1936. He had only daughters, who came to adulthood.3

After the death of Sultan Jamalul Kiram II, his brother Muvallil Wasit II was declared Sultan. Until then, he was the Crown Prince. He, however, died in the same year (1936), before he was formally crowned.4

In the period 1937 – 1950, there were several pretenders to the throne of the Sultanate of Sulu. One of them was Amirul Umara I, supported by the Japanese. He was the son in law of Sultan Jamalul Kiram II (husband of his adopted daughter Piandao). The second was Jainal Abirin. He was supported by the American forces.5

Sultan Moh. Esmail Kiram I was the eldest son of Sultan Muvallil Wasit II. He was Crown Prince, before coming to the throne. He was leader of the Sultanate of Sulu in the period of 24 years, between 1950. and 1974. He was recognized by the Philippine government.6

In 1974, after the death of Sultan Moh. Esmail I Kiram, the throne was succeeded by his eldest son, Sultan Moh. Mahakuttah Kiram. During the reign of his father, Mahakuttah Kiram was the Crown Prince.7

At the time of the coronation of Sultan Moh. Mahakuttah Kiram, his eldest son, Muedzul Lail Tan Kiram, was proclaimed Crown Prince Sultanate of Sulu. The former Philippine president Ferdinand Marcos, by special decree, confirmed the coronation of the new Sultan and the appointment of the new heir to the throne. There are documents concerning this event, that have been published on the official website of the Sultanate of Sulu, and in recent times they have been mentioned in the official Gazette of the Republic of Philippines.8

Sultan Moh. Mahakuttah Kiram died in 1986. At that moment, Muedzul Lail Tan Kiram should to come to the throne, both regarding his inheritance right of the first born Sultan’s son, as well as his appointment as the Crown Prince in 1974. However, due to the unstable political situation in the country, and because of his youth, the official coronation didn’t happened at that time. Then, as well as in the following years and decades, appeared some people with unfounded claims of Sulu sultan’s throne.9

Some of these self-proclaimed pretenders were of the royal blood, and members of Kiram dynasty, like Datu (Prince) Fuad Kiram, Jamalul Kiram III, or Esmail Kiram II. Others were born in families that were not of royal or noble ancestry, but anyway they stated their claim to throne.10

This situation has formally ended when, in 16 September 2012, took place the traditional coronation of the legal heir to the throne of the Sultanate of Sulu, Sultan Muedzul Lail Tan Kiram.11

Even after the historic act of coronation of Sultan Muedzul Lail Tan Kiram, which was supported by the Royal Council (Ruma Bichara), imams of the Islamic community of Sulu, local leaders and people Sulu, some self-proclaimed pretenders have not given up their claims to the Sultan title.12

Using his legitimate right, Sultan Muedzul Lail Tan Kiram established, in accordance with the old traditions of the Sultanate, the Royal and Hashemite Order of Pearl. This Order has been recognized in international royal, aristocratic and expert circles. Among its numerous prominent members we will mention only a few: King of Bunyoro-Kitara Solomon Iguru I, King of Rwanda Kigeli V, Head of the Royal House of Portugal Duarte Pio of Braganza, Head of the Royal House of Georgia David Bagration, Ethiopian Imperial Prince Ermias Sahle Selassie, members of some royal and princely houses, like Karageorgevich and Habsburg, princes of Afghanistan, Egypt, Hyderabad, as well as others. Among members of this Order is also former Polish president and Nobel Prize winner, Lech Walesa.13

Some relevant international organizations, such as the International Commission for Orders of Chivalry, Augustan Society and others, clearly recognized Muedzul Lail Tan Kiram as the sole legitimate Sultan of Sulu and the only person in the Sultanate, who now has the right to establish chivalric orders (orders of datuship).14

Unlike the Royal and Hashemite Order of the Pearl, some fictitious „titles“ and „orders“ are promoted by self-proclaimed pretenders. These are named mainly on the pseudo – European bases, not accordingly the traditions of Sulu. These self-proclaimed pretenders are not legitimate holders of the title of Sultan or chief of the royal House of Kiram, so they have no right for such actions. Their so-called „titles“ and „orders“ are not recognized by any of relevant international organisations.15

Sultan Muedzul Lail Tan Kiram is recognized and respected by members of many of the world’s dynasties. He is also the holder of a significant number of foreign decorations. Among them, there are Orders awarded by the royal houses of: Bunyoro-Kitara (Uganda), Georgia, Rwanda, Vietnam and Ethiopia.16

Considering all that is mentioned, it is clear that the only true and legitimate Sultan of Sulu is Muedzul Lail Tan Kiram. As the eldest son of the last undeniable Sultan of Sulu, Moh. Mahakuttah Kiram, he is the only legitimate claimant to the throne of his late father. Furthermore, in his early age, at the time of his father’s coronation, he was appointed as Crown Prince. All legitimate sultans of Sulu in the 20th century were firstly bearers of this title. His appointment was confirmed by the Philippine President Ferdinand Marcos. Also, the sultan Muedzul Lail Tan Kiram is grandson of Sultan Moh. Esmail I Kiram, and great-grandson of Sultan Muvallil Wasit II. He was crowned as Sultan of Sulu on 16 September 2012, with the support and approval of the Royal Council, the imams of the Islamic community of Sulu and people of Sulu. These are the facts, intentionally relativized by self-proclaimed pretenders to the throne of the Sultanate and by their followers, because of their own interests.

ALEKSANDAR BAČKO OPS

March 2013.

Note: this text is published for the first time at The Center for Research of Orthodox Monarchism internet presentation http://www.czipm.org

SOURCES AND LITERATURE

  1. Information from internet presentation http://www.royalsultanateofsulu.org/#!sultan-of-sulu (further: Sultan of Sulu); http://www.royalsultanateofsulu.org/#!history (further: History); http://www.royalsultanateofsulu.org/#!news (further: News); http://www.prlog.org/12087667-official-gazette-of-the-republic-of-the-philippines-publishes-official-list-of-sultans-of-sulu.html (further: Prlog); http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muedzul_Lail_Tan_Kiram (further: Wikipedia, Muedzul Lail Tan Kiram); http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_sultans_of_Sulu (further: Wikipedia, List of Sultans of Sulu).
  2. http://pcdspo.gov.ph/downloads/PDF-for-download_Succession-Line_A4.pdf (further: Succession-Line); Prlog; Wikipedia, List of Sultans of Sulu; Sultan of Sulu; History.
  3. Succession-Line; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Royal_House_of_Sulu (further: Wikipedia, Royal House of Sulu); Wikipedia, List of Sultans of Sulu; Sultan of Sulu; History.
  4. Succession-Line; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sultanate_of_Sulu (further: Wikipedia, Sultanate of Sulu); Wikipedia, Royal House of Sulu; Wikipedia, List of Sultans of Sulu; Sultan of Sulu; History.
  5. Wikipedia, Royal House of Sulu; Wikipedia, List of Sultans of Sulu; Sultan of Sulu; History.
  6. Succession-Line; Wikipedia, Sultanate of Sulu; Wikipedia, Royal House of Sulu; Wikipedia, Royal House of Sulu; Wikipedia, List of Sultans of Sulu; Sultan of Sulu; History; History.
  7. Succession-Line; Prlog; Wikipedia, Sultanate of Sulu; Wikipedia, Royal House of Sulu; Wikipedia, List of Sultans of Sulu; Sultan of Sulu; History; News.
  8. http://www.royalsultanateofsulu.org/#!news/vstc7=legal-documents; Succession-Line; Prlog; Wikipedia, Sultanate of Sulu; Wikipedia, Muedzul Lail Tan Kiram; Wikipedia, Royal House of Sulu; Wikipedia, List of Sultans of Sulu; Sultan of Sulu; History; News.
  9. Succession-Line; Prlog; Wikipedia, Sultanate of Sulu; Wikipedia, Muedzul Lail Tan Kiram; Wikipedia, Royal House of Sulu; Wikipedia, Royal House of Sulu; Wikipedia, List of Sultans of Sulu; Sultan of Sulu; History; News.
  10. http://www.royalsultanateofsulu.org/#!news/vstc7=revoke-appointment-of–fuad-a-kiram; Succession-Line; Prlog; Wikipedia, List of Sultans of Sulu; Sultan of Sulu; History.
  11. http://www.royalsultanateofsulu.org/#!news/vstc7=35th-sultan-of-sulu-is-crowned; Prlog; Wikipedia, Muedzul Lail Tan Kiram; Wikipedia, List of Sultans of Sulu; http://www.czipm.org/new-sultan-of-sulu.html.
  12. Succession-Line; Prlog; Wikipedia, Muedzul Lail Tan Kiram; Wikipedia, List of Sultans of Sulu.
  13. http://www.royalsultanateofsulu.org/#!order-of-the-pearl ; http://www.royalsultanateofsulu.org/#!news/vstc7=sovereignty; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Royal_and_Hashemite_Order_of_the_Pearl; http://www.ordenskreuz.com/sulu.htm; http://salondeltrono.blogspot.co.uk/2011/11/la-orden-de-la-perla-del-real-sultanato.html; http://augustansociety.org/cpage.php?pt=50 (further: Augustan Society); http://www.aber.ac.uk/en/law-criminology/staffdirectory/noc1/; http://www.idtg.org/archive/1650-heraldic-privileges-of-the-royal-and-hashemite-order-of-the-pearl/; http://www.czipm.org/heraldic-sulu.html; http://www.czipm.org/biserni-vitezovi-eng.html.
  14. Wikipedia, Sultanate of Sulu; http://www.100enonpiu100.info/programma2012.htm (further: Programma 2012); Augustan Society; http://www.royalsultanateofsulu.org/#!news/vstc7=“il-mondo-del-cavaliere“-no.44; http://www.royalsultanateofsulu.org/#!news/vstc7=silatnas-2011-invitation; http://www.icocregister.org/index.htm.
  15. Augustan Society.
  16. http://www.royalsultanateofsulu.org/#!news/vstc7=ballo-dei-cento-e-non-più-cento; http://www.royalsultanateofsulu.org/#!news/vstc7=treaty-of-friendly-relations; Wikipedia, Muedzul Lail Tan Kiram; Programma 2012.
ABOUT SUCCESSION OF THE TITLE OF SULTAN OF SULU

„THE PEARL KNIGHTS“ – ABOUT THE ROYAL AND HASHEMITE ORDER OF THE PEARL

Dedicated to His Majesty Muedzul Lail Tan Kiram Sultan of Sulu and North Borneo Head of the Royal House of The Sultanate of Sulu and North Borneo
Although The Royal and Hashemite Order of the Pearl was formally established in June 2011, it is an institution whose roots are much deeper. When the current Sultan of Sulu and North Borneo, His Majesty Muedzul Lail Tan Kiram decided to establish a Order, using His sovereign right as „Fons honorum“, it was uniting of the royal, nobiliary and chivalrous traditions of Sultanate, in a manner appropriate international standards.1

Тhis issue will be further discussed. However, firstly we will analyze the name of this Order.

***

Almost from the beginning of human civilization, the pearl has represented something very precious, but at the same time something sophisticated and rare. Symbolism of the pearl is very significant. It is mentioned in many of ancient writings. Sacred books of great world religions, including Christianity, Islam and Hinduism, mention pearl, usually as a symbol of great value.2

For the Sultanate of Sulu and North Borneo, pearl is even more important than for most other countries. On the islands of the Sulu archipelago pearls are collected for centuries in the traditional way. It is believed, that pearls from Sulu are most valuable in the world. For centuries, only the Sultan of Sulu and North Borneo had the right to possess the largest and most valuable pearls found in the archipelago. Although penalties for violators of this law were very harsh, some exceptional pieces found their way to Europe and other destinations by secret channels. Pearls are also of great importance for this country because, for a long time, they are one of the pillars of its economy.3

***

The term „Hashemite“ in the title of Order has its roots in the very foundations Kiram dynasty, as well as the history of the Sultanate of Sulu and North Borneo. This term refers to the ancient Arab clan Hashemites, descendants of Hashim. It is a branch of a larger tribe, the Quraish. From the Hashemite clan originated Prophet Muhammad himself, his daughter Fatima and her husband Ali, the most important personalities of Islam. The roots of this clan are in the region Hejaz in today’s Saudi Arabia, near the Red Sea.4

In the narrow sense, Hashemites are descendants of the Prophet Muhammad through his daughter Fatima and her husband Ali. Fatima and Ali had more children, but it is known that four of them came to maturity. These were sons Hasan ibn Ali and Husayn ibn Ali, and daughters Zaynab and Umm Kulthum. Descendants of Fatima and Ali are bearing honorary titles Sayyid (master) and the Sharif (noble).5

Some important Dynasties of the Islamic world developed from the old clan Hashemites. Among them were the former Dynasties of: Hejaz Kingdom, Syria, North Yemen and Iraq. Shаrifs of Mecca had Same origins. Current Royal Houses of Jordan and Morocco are also of Hashemitic origin.6

Royal House of Kiram of Sulu and North Borneo is one of the Dynasties that have Hashemite ancestry. In the first half of the 15th century Said Abubakar Abirin, a prominent explorer and Islamic religious teacher, came to Sulu. He was born in Johor on the Malay Peninsula, and he was of Arabic, respectively of Hashemitic origin. He married Princess Paramisuli and about 1450, after the death of his father in law Raj Baguinde, he founded the Sultanate of Sulu. Said Abubakar Abirin ruler’s name was Sharif ul – Hashim. The present Royal House of the Sultanate of Sulu and North Borneo, Kiram, descends from him.7

As mentioned, Hashemites in the narrow sense of the word, or descendants of the Prophet Muhammad through his daughter Fatima, have the right to bear the title Sayyid. In accordance with the traditions of his country, and his Hashemitic origin, His Majesty Sultan of Sulu and North Borneo, bears the title of the Grand Sayyid of the The Royal and Hashemite Order of the Pearl. It is the appropriate title for this function of His Majesty, because it is equivalent to the traditional title of the Grand Master of the Order in English language.8 

***

Title of Sultan is certainly one of the most important and most frequent royal titles in countries with deeply rooted Islamic traditions. This title comes from the Arabic language and is derived from the term „sultah“, meaning „authority“ or „power“. In the region of Sulu archipelago it has been present since the mid-15th century. His Majesty Muedzul Lail Tan Kiram is the 35th Sultan of the Sultanate of Sulu and North Borneo.9

The term „Fons honorum“ (Fount of honour) means a person who, by his/her position, has the sovereign right of giving legitimate titles of nobility, or membership in the knightly orders, to other people. These are, therefore, persons who are either rulers of states, heads of dynasties, or leaders of traditional (old) religious organizations. By the establishment of The Royal and Hashemite Order of the Pearl, His Majesty Muedzul Lail Tan Kiram used this sovereign right as the Sultan of the Sultanate of Sulu and North Borneo, as well as the Head of the Royal House of Kiram.10 

***

Besides the symbolism regarding the name, insignia of The Royal and Hashemite Order of the Pearl also contain a certain symbolic significance. On the insignia of this Order (collar, badges, stars, rosettes and miniatures) are elements of the coat of arms of the Sultanate of Sulu and North Borneo: double saber, pearl, crescent, star and crown.11

Besides the crescent and star, which are clearly associated with Islamic tradition of the Sultanate of Sulu and North Borneo, one of the most significant parts of insignia of The Royal and Hashemite Order of the Pearl is represented by double saber, probably Zulfiqar. This symbol is also represented at Coat of Arms of the Sultanate of Sulu and North Borneo. It is a legendary bifurcated (double) saber or sword of Ali, given to him by his father-in-law, Prophet Muhammad. Zulfiqar is, among other things, a symbol of sharp distinction between right and wrong.12

The symbolism of the pearls for Sulu is already mentioned. The crown on the insignia of The Royal and Hashemite Order of the Pearl represents ruler’s dignity of the Sultan of Sulu and North Borneo. On the breast star of the Order appears the mythical animals (semi tiger – semi fish), which are also supporters of the shield on the Greater Coat of Arms of the Sultanate.13

***

The Royal and Hashemite Order of the Pearl is divided into several grades. Highest grade, Royal Companion, is reserved exclusively for members of the current and former ruling houses. Beside this, there are five more grades in the Order: Grand Cordon, Distinguished Companion, Companion, Officer and Member. This ranking to some extent resembles the ranking of traditional nobility and privileged classes of society in the Sultanate of Sulu and North Borneo (datu, tuan…), but also the European Royal Orders of Chivalry. Membership in the Order can only be acquired in accordance with the wish and the approval of its Grand Sayyid (Grand Master). With this dynastic Order its Grand Sayyid rewards persons of all nationalities and religions, which were particularly meritorious concerning service, deeds and faithfulness to the Royal House and the Sultanate of Sulu and North Borneo, as well as those, who gained an outstanding international reputation in their field of activity.14

Great Cordon of The Royal and Hashemite Order of the Pearl

Great Cordon of The Royal and Hashemite Order of the Pearl

 

In outstanding article “Heraldic privileges of the Royal and Hashemite Order of the Pearl”, His Excellency Aleksander Kimon Andreou gave a very detailed insight into the heraldic aspects of the Order, so at this point we will not specifically deal with them.15

***

Among the members of The Royal and Hashemite Order of the Pearl there are some leading figures from the royal families, as well as scientists, artists, and other prominent individuals. We are going to mention only a few here: HM King (Omukama) Solomon Iguru I of Bunyoro-Kitara, HM King Kigeli V of Rwanda, HRH Duarte Pio Duke of Breganza „de jure“ King of Portugal, HRH David Bagration of Mukhrani Crown Prince of Georgia, HIH Ermias Sahle Selassie Crown Prince of Ethiopia, HIRH Archduke Joseph Karl von Habsburg, HRH Princess Margaret von Hohenberg, HRH Prince Aleksandar Pavlov Karageorgevich, HRH Prince Vladimir Karageorgevich, HRH Princess Jelisaveta Karageorgevich, HRH Princess Brigitta Karageorgevich, HRH Princess Luciana Pallavicini Hassan of Afghanistan, HRH Princess Mahera Hassan of Afghanistan, HRH Prince Ibrahim Osman Rifat, HRH Mohsin Ali Khan of Hyderabad and many other prominent members of the Order.16

***

Although, in accordance with tradition and spirit of the Sultanate of Sulu and North Borneo, The Royal and Hashemite Order of the Pearl is not officially called the order of chivalry, it is certainly knightly order of the Royal House, from a European point of view. Concerning this, the writer of these lines should not be criticized for authorial freedom, to call members of The Royal and Hashemite Order of the Pearl – “The Pearl Knights”.

ALEKSANDAR BAČKO

Belgrade, October 2012.

Sources and literature

  1. Information from official internet presentation of Sultanate of Sulu www.royalsultanateofsulu.org/#!order-of-the-pearl (further: Sultanate of Sulu); Royal and Hashemite Order of the Pearl, Data from internet presentation Wikipedia in English en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Royal_and_Hashemite_Order_of_the_Pearl (further: Royal and Hashemite Order of the Pearl); Kimon Alexander Andreou, Heraldic privileges of the Royal and Hashemite Order of the Pearl, www.czipm.org/heraldic-sulu.html (further: Andreou).
  2. Julie McCarty, The Pearl of Great Price, 2007, 46; Pearl, Data from internet presentation Wikipedia in English en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pearl (further: Pearl).
  3. James Francis Warren, The Sulu zone 1768 – 1898, Singapore 2007, 72 – 74; George Frederick Kunz, Charles Hugh Stevenson, The book of the pearl, Toronto 1993, 214, 220, 468; Paul C. Southgate, John S. Lucas, The Pearl Oyster, 2008, 25; Pearl.
  4. Hussain al-Mousawi, The Genealogy of the Prophet Muhammed and the Royal Houses of the Middle East with emphasis on the Hashemite (Alawaite) Kingdoms, Genealogica & Heraldica Ottawa 1996, Ottawa 1998. (further: Mousawi), 219 – 238; Bernard Reich, Political Leaders of the Contemporary Middle East and North Africa, 1990. (further: Reich), 233; David Seddon, A Political and Economic Dictionary of the Middle East, London 2004. (further: Seddon), 241; Hashemite, Data from internet presentation Wikipedia in English en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hashemite (further: Hashemite).
  5. Mousawi, 219 – 238; Reich, 233; Fatimah, Data from internet presentation Wikipedia in English en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fatimah.
  6. Mousawi, 219 – 238; Reich, 233; Seddon, 241; Hashemite.
  7. Ahmad Ibrahim, Sharon Siddique, Yasmin Hussain, Readings on Islam in Southeast Asia, Institute of Southeast Asian studies, Singapore 1985, 50 – 55; List of sultans of Sulu, Data from internet presentation Wikipedia in English en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_sultans_of_Sulu, Muhammad Shah of Brunei, Data from internet presentation Wikipedia in English en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muhammad_Shah_of_Brunei; Muhammad Hassan, Data from internet presentation Wikipedia in English en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muhammad_Hassan.
  8. Mousawi, 223; Fatimah; Sultanate of Sulu; Royal and Hashemite Order of the Pearl; Andreou.
  9. Juan Eduardo Campo, Encyclopedia of Islam, New York 2009, 643; Sultan, Data from internet presentation Wikipedia in English en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sultan.
  10. Antti Matikkala, The Orders of Knighthood and the Formation of the British Honours System 1660 – 1760, 2008, 100; Fons honorum, Data from internet presentation Wikipedia in English en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fons_honorum; Sultanate of Sulu; Royal and Hashemite Order of the Pearl.
  11. Andreou; Royal and Hashemite Order of the Pearl.
  12. Madonna Gauding, The Signs and Symbols Bible, New York 2009, 105; Roy Jackson, Fifty Key Figures in Islam, 2006, 17; Zulfiqar, Data from internet presentation Wikipedia in English en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zulfiqar.
  13. Andreou; Royal and Hashemite Order of the Pearl.
  14. Sultanate of Sulu; Royal and Hashemite Order of the Pearl.
  15. Andreou.
  16. Royal and Hashemite Order of the Pearl.
„THE PEARL KNIGHTS“ – ABOUT THE ROYAL AND HASHEMITE ORDER OF THE PEARL

„БИСЕРНИ ВИТЕЗОВИ“ – ОСВРТ НА КРАЉЕВСКИ И ХАШЕМИТСКИ РЕД БИСЕРА

Посвећено Његовом Величанству Муедзул Лаил Тан Кираму

Султану Сулуа и Северног Борнеа

Поглавару Краљевског Дома Султаната Сулуа и Северног Борнеа

Иако је Краљевски и Хашемитски Ред Бисера званично основан јуна 2011. године, ипак се ради о институцији, чији су корени знатно дубљи. Када је данашњи Султан Сулуа и Северног Борнеа, Његово Височанство Муедзул Лаил Тан Кирам, искористивши своје суверено право као „Fons honorum“, решио да оснује Ред, објединио је владарске, племићке и витешке традиције Султаната, на начин прилагођен међународним нормама.1

О овом питању ће у даљем тексту бити више речи. Међутим, на првом месту осврнућемо се на само име овог Реда.

* * *

Готово од самих почетака људске цивилизације, бисер је представљао нешто веома драгоцено, али у исто време и нешто префињено и раритетно. Симболика бисера веома је велика. Он се помиње у многим старим списима. Свете књиге великих светских религија, међу којима су и хришћанство, ислам и хиндуизам, помињу бисер, најчешће као симбол велике вредности.2

За Султанат Сулу и Северни Борнео бисер има још већи значај него за већину осталих земаља. На острвима Сулу архипелага бисери се већ вековима прикупљају на традиционалан начин. Сматра се, да су бисери из Сулуа највреднији на свету. Вековима је султан Сулуа и Северног Борнеа једини имао право поседовања најкрупнијих и највреднијих примерака бисера пронађених у овом архипелагу. Иако су за прекршиоце овог закона следовале веома оштре казне, ипак су поједини изузетни примерци тајним каналима налазили свој пут до Европе и других дестинација. Бисери су за ову земљу од велике важности и због тога, што већ дуго времена представљају један од стубова њене економије.3

* * *

Термин „Хашемитски“ у називу Реда има утемељење у самим коренима династије Кирам, као и историјату Султаната Сулуа и Северног Борнеа. Овај термин односи се на старо арапско племе Хашемита, потомака Хашима. У питању је огранак већег племена, Курејша. Из племена Хашемита поникли су и сам пророк Мухамед, његова ћерка Фатима и зет Алија, дакле најважније личности ислама. Корени овог племена су у региону Хеџаз у данашњој Саудиској Арабији, недалеко од Црвеног мора.4

У ужем смислу речи, Хашемити су потомци пророка Мухамеда, преко његове ћерке Фатиме и зета Алије. Фатима и Алија имали су више деце, али се поуздано зна, да је зреле године дочекало њих четворо. У питању су били синови Хасан ибн Али и Хусеин ибн Али, као и ћерке Зајнаб и Ум Култум. Потомци Фатиме и Алије носе зову се почасним титулама саид (господар) и шaриф (племенити).5

Од старог племена Хашемита се у исламском свету развило се више значајних династија. Међу њима су биле некадашње династије: Краљевине Хеџаз, Сирије, Северног Јемена и Ирака. Истог порекла били су и шaрифи Меке. Хашемитског порекла су и данашње краљевске куће Јордана и Марока.6

Краљевски дом Кирам од Сулуа и Северног Борнеа спада у ред династија, које имају хашемитско порекло. Наиме, у првој половини 15. века у Сулу је дошао Саид Абубакар Абирин, истраживач и истакнути исламски вероучитељ. Рођен је у Џохору на Малајском полуострву, а био је арапског, тачније хашемитског порекла. Оженио се принцезом Парамисули и након смрти свог таста раџе Багуинде, око 1450. године, основао је Султанат Сулу. Владарско име Саид Абубакар Абиринa било је Шариф ул – Хашим. Данашња владарска кућа Султаната Сулуа и Северног Борнеа, Кирам, води порекло од њега.7

Као што је поменуто, титулу саида имају право носити Хашемити у ужем смислу речи, односно потомци пророка Мухамеда преко његове ћерке Фатиме. У складу са традицијама своје земље, као и свог хашемитског порекла, Његово Величанство Султан Сулуа и Северног Борнеа понео је титулу великог саида (Grand Sayyid), односно великог господара Краљевског и Хашемитског Реда Бисера. Ова титула је утолико прикладнија за ову функцију Његовог Величанства, пошто се ради о традиционалном еквиваленту титуле великог господара Реда на енглеском језику (Grand Master).8

* * *

Титула султана је свакако једна од најзначајнијих и најчешћих краљевских титула у земљама са дубоко укорењеним исламским традицијама. Ова титула долази из арапског језика и изведена је од термина „султах“, са значењем „власт“, односно „моћ“. На просторима Сулу архипелага она је присутна од средине 15. века. Његово Величанство Муедзул Лаил Тан Кирам је 35. султан Султаната Сулуа и Северног Борнеа.9

Под термином „Fons honorum“ (извор части) подразумева се особа, која по својој позицији, има суверено право, да другим особама дарује легитимне племићке титуле, или чланство у витешким редовима. У питању су, дакле, особе, које су или владари држава, поглавари династија, или поглавари традиционалних (старих) верских заједница. Оснивањем Краљевског и Хашемитског Реда Бисера, Његово Величанство Муедзул Лаил Тан Кирам је искористио ово своје суверено право као султан Султаната Сулуа и Северног Борнеа, односно као поглавар владарске куће Кирам.10

* * *

Поред симболике по питању самог имена, ознаке Краљевског и Хашемитског Реда Бисера такође садрже одређено симболичко значење. На ознакама Реда (колари, значке, звезде, минијатуре и розете) налазе се елементи из грба Султаната Сулуа и Северног Борнеа, као што су: двострука сабља, бисер, полумесец, звезда и  круна.11

Поред полумесеца и звезде, који су јасно повезани са исламском традицијом Султаната Сулуа и Северног Борнеа, једно од најзначајнијих места на ознакама Краљевског и Хашемитског Реда Бисера заузима двострука сабља, највероватније Зулфикар. Ово је симбол који се налази и на грбу Султаната Сулуа и Северног Борнеа. У питању је легендарна рачваста (двострука) сабља или мач, коју је Алији дао његов таст, пророк Мухамед. Зулфикар је, између осталог, симбол оштре разлике између исправног и погрешног.12

Симболика бисера за Сулу већ је наведена. Круна на ознакама Краљевског и Хашемитског Реда Бисера означава владарско достојанство султана Сулуа и Северног Борнеа. На напрсној звезди Реда јављају се и митске животиње (полу тигрови – полу рибе), које се налазе као држачи штита на великом грбу овог султаната.13

* * *

Краљевски и Хашемитски Ред Бисера дели са на више степенова. Највиши степен, краљевски компањон, резервисан је искључиво за припаднике садашњих и бивших владарских кућа. Поред овог, постоји још пет степенова у Реду: велики кордон, истакнути компањон, компањон, официр и члан. Ово рангирање у извесној мери подсећа на различите редове традиционалног племства и привилегованих редова друштва у Султанату Сулуа и Северног Борнеа (дату, туан…), али и на европске краљевске витешке редове. Чланство у Реду може се стећи само у складу са жељом и одобрењем његовог Врховног Господара (Grand Sayyid). Овим династичким Редом његов Врховни Господар награђује особе свих националности и вероисповести, које су се посебно истакле својом службом, делима и верношћу Краљевском дому и Султанату Сулуа и Северног Борнеа, као и оне, који су у својим пољима делатности стекли изузетан реноме на међународном плану.14

У свом изузетном тексту о хералдичким привилегијама Реда (Heraldic privileges of the Royal and Hashemite Order of the Pearl), Његова Екселенција Кимон Александер Андреоу изнео је веома детаљан увид у хералдичке аспекте Реда, тако да се на овом месту нећемо посебно бавити њима.15

* * *

Међу припаднике Краљевског и Хашемитског Реда Бисера убрајају се поједине значајне личности, како из реда краљевских породица, тако и из редова научника, уметника, као и други истакнути појединци. На овом месту поменућемо само неке: Њ.В. Соломон Игуру I краљ (омукама) Бунјоро-Китаре, Њ.В. Кигели V краљ Руанде, Њ.К.В. Дуарте Пио кнез Бреганце „de iure“ краљ Португалије, Њ.К.В. Давид Багратион-Мухрански принц престолонаследник Грузије, Њ.Ц.В. Ермијас Сахле Селасије принц престолонаследник Етиопије, Њ.Ц.К.В. надвојвода Јозеф Карл фон Хабсбург, Њ.К.В. принцеза Маргарета Хоенберг, Њ.К.В. принц Александар Павлов Карађорђевић, Њ.К.В. принц Владимир Карађорђевић, Њ.К.В. принцеза Јелисавета Карађорђевић, Њ.К.В. принцеза Бригита Карађорђевић, Њ.К.В. принцеза Лућиана Палавићини Хасан од Авганистана, Њ.К.В. принцеза Махера Хасан од Авганистана, Њ.К.В. принц Осман Рифат Ибрахим, Њ.К.В. Мохсин Али Кан од Хајдерабада као и многи други истакнути чланови Реда.16

* * *

Иако се, у складу са дугом традицијом и духом Султаната Сулуа и Северног Борнеа, Краљевски и Хашемитски Ред Бисера званично не назива витешким редом, он свакако, из европског аспекта гледано, јесте витешки ред краљевског дома. Због тога писцу ових редова не треба замерити ауторску слободу, да назове припаднике Краљевског и Хашемитског Ред Бисера – „Бисерним Витезовима“.

АЛЕКСАНДАР БАЧКО

Београд, октобар 2012.

Напомена: овај текст је први пут објављен на интернет презентацији Центра за истраживање православног монархизма http://www.czipm.org

Извори и литература

  1. Подаци са званичне интернет презентације Султаната Сулуа www.royalsultanateofsulu.org/#!order-of-the-pearl (у даљем тексту: Султанат Сулу); Royal and Hashemite Order of the Pearl, текст на Википедији на енглеском језику en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Royal_and_Hashemite_Order_of_the_Pearl (у даљем тексту: Royal and Hashemite Order of the Pearl); Kimon Alexander Andreou, Heraldic privileges of the Royal and Hashemite Order of the Pearl, www.czipm.org/heraldic-sulu.html (у даљем тексту: Andreou).
  2. Julie McCarty, The Pearl of Great Price, 2007, 46; Pearl, текст на Википедији на енглеском језику en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pearl (у даљем тексту: Pearl).
  3. James Francis Warren, The Sulu zone 1768 – 1898, Singapore 2007, 72 – 74; George Frederick Kunz, Charles Hugh Stevenson, The book of the pearl, Toronto 1993, 214, 220, 468; Paul C. Southgate, John S. Lucas, The Pearl Oyster, 2008, 25; Pearl.
  4. Hussain al-Mousawi, The Genealogy of the Prophet Muhammed and the Royal Houses of the Middle East with emphasis on the Hashemite (Alawaite) Kingdoms, Genealogica & Heraldica Ottawa 1996, Ottawa 1998. (у даљем тексту: Mousawi), 219 – 238; Bernard Reich, Political Leaders of the Contemporary Middle East and North Africa, 1990. (у даљем тексту: Reich), 233; David Seddon, A Political and Economic Dictionary of the Middle East, London 2004. (у даљем тексту: Seddon), 241; Hashemite, текст на Википедији на енглеском језику en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hashemite (у даљем тексту: Hashemite).
  5. Mousawi, 219 – 238; Reich, 233; Fatimah, текст на Википедији на енглеском језику en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fatimah.
  6. Mousawi, 219 – 238; Reich, 233; Seddon, 241; Hashemite.
  7. Ahmad Ibrahim, Sharon Siddique, Yasmin Hussain, Readings on Islam in Southeast Asia, Institute of Southeast Asian studies, Singapore 1985, 50 – 55; List of sultans of Sulu, текст на Википедији на енглеском језику en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_sultans_of_Sulu, Muhammad Shah of Brunei, текст на Википедији на енглеском језику en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muhammad_Shah_of_Brunei; Muhammad Hassan, текст на Википедији на енглеском језику en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muhammad_Hassan.
  8. Mousawi, 223; Fatimah; Султанат Сулу; Royal and Hashemite Order of the Pearl; Andreou.
  9. Juan Eduardo Campo, Encyclopedia of Islam, New York 2009, 643; Sultan, текст на Википедији на енглеском језику en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sultan.
  10. Antti Matikkala, The Orders of Knighthood and the Formation of the British Honours System 1660 – 1760, 2008, 100; Fons honorum, текст на Википедији на енглеском језику en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fons_honorum; Султанат Сулу; Royal and Hashemite Order of the Pearl.
  11. Andreou; Royal and Hashemite Order of the Pearl.
  12. Madonna Gauding, The Signs and Symbols Bible, New York 2009, 105; Roy Jackson, Fifty Key Figures in Islam, 2006, 17; Zulfiqar, текст на Википедији на енглеском језику en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zulfiqar.
  13. Andreou; Royal and Hashemite Order of the Pearl.
  14. Султанат Сулу; Royal and Hashemite Order of the Pearl.
  15. Andreou.
  16. Royal and Hashemite Order of the Pearl.
„БИСЕРНИ ВИТЕЗОВИ“ – ОСВРТ НА КРАЉЕВСКИ И ХАШЕМИТСКИ РЕД БИСЕРА

NOTES FROM THE HISTORY OF THE SULTANATE OF SULU DURING THE 19th CENTURY – PERIOD OF TEN RULERS

Dedicated to His Majesty Sultan Muedzul Lail Tan Kiram of Sulu

Head of the Royal House Sultanate of Sulu

Introduction

Period of 19th century was in the history of the Sultanate of Sulu very dynamic and marked with various important events. During this century, there was ten Sultans as the heads of state of Sulu. Here will be presented some of the important events, related to their rule in the century of the world’s industrial and technological revolution.

The Sultanate of Sulu entered in the 19th Century as ally of the British Empire. This alliance was dating back to the mid 18th century, when the two countries started their joint struggle against the Spanish. The British in the 18th century had their trading post in the Sultanate of Sulu, more precisely at Balambangan island, near the northern coast of Borneo. The Sultan of Sulu issued a permission for its foundation. This outpost was abandoned by 1775, because it was heavily damaged during the frequent pirate attacks.[1]

 

Coat of Arms of the Royal Sultanate of Sulu and North Borneo

Coat of Arms of The Royal Sultanate of Sulu and North Borneo

 

 

Sultan Sharapud-Din

At late 18th and early 19th century the Sultanate of Sulu was under the rule of Sultan Sharapud-Din. He was the head of the country from 1789, until his death, in 1808. He lived to old age. He was the son of Sultan Alimud-Din I. During his reign, namely in 1803, the British renewed their presence on the island Balambangan, but this time in the form of military base. From there, however, they withdrew in November 1805.[2]

Sultan Alimud-Din III

Sultan Sharapud-Din was succeeded on the throne by his son, Sultan Alimud-Din III. He ruled very briefly, considered to be only 40 days. He died in 1808, the same year as his father. He probably died of smallpox, which raged in that year on the main island of Sulu archipelago, Jolo.[3]

Sultan Aliyud-Din I

After Alimud-Din’s death, on the throne of this island monarchy, came his younger brother, a pious Sultan Aliyud-Din I. He ruled between the 1808. and 1821. When the Spanish lost Mexico in 1821, their possessions in the Philippines came under the direct rule of Madrid. This further influenced the deterioration in relations between the Spanish Empire and the Sultanate of Sulu.[4]

Sultan Shakirul-Lah

In the 1821. Sultan of Sulu became Shakirul-Lah. He was the brother of the Sultans Alimud-Din III and Aliyud-Din I, and the son of Sharapud-Din. He is remembered as a great benefactor of the poor. He reigned for only two years, until his death, in 1823.[5]

Sultan Jamalul-Kiram I

Sultan Jamalul-Kiram I was the son of Sultan Alimud-Din III. He ruled the Sultanate of Sulu between 1823. and 1844. The royal House of Kiram, Sultanate of Sulu ruling family, is named after him.[6]

The Spanish fleet under the command of Captain Alonso Morgado in 1824. won a victory over some slave traders and pirates, who came from Sulu. This event improved the Spanish naval supremacy in these waters. The following period was also marked by several Spanish naval victories, which led to a reduction in the Sultanate’s maritime power.[7]

During 1840s, besides Spanish colonial interests in the territory under the rule of Sulatanate of Sulu, interests among other world powers has increased, such as: France, Britain, Germany and the United States of America.[8]

Sultan Mohammad Pulalun Kiram

Mohammad Pulalun Kiram (Pogdar) was the Sultan of Sulu in the period from 1844, until his death, in 1862. He was the son of the previous ruler of Sulu, Sultan Jamalul-Kiram I. He was regarded as capable administrator and a just ruler.[9]

French fleet under Admiral Jean-Baptiste Cécille attacked the Jolo and after that, in 1844/1845, conducted a naval blockade of the island of Basilan, forcing the local leaders to recognize the sovereignty of France, on 13. January 1845. In this way, French forced the Sultanate of Sulu to formally cede Basilan for 100 000 piasters (500 000 francs), on 20. February 1845. Their intention was to create the naval base, similar to British base in Hong Kong. However, they gave up the project, as they were encountered by fierce resistance of the local population and the Spanish Empire. The Spanish also strongly opposed by diplomatic means, claiming that Basilan is part of their possessions in the Philippines. The French issued the proclamation on 5. August 1845, claiming that they have no longer interests in Basilan.[10]

After a long period of mutual devastations and conflicts between the Spanish and the Sultanate of Sulu, in 1848. there has been a significant shift in favor of the Spanish interests. One of the main causes of this turning point, was remarkable technological advance of world powers and the emergence of new types of weapons. Especialy introduction of steamships in the Spanish Navy was of great importance. Establishment of the Spanish fortress Queen Isabella II (Fuerte Isabella Segunda Reina) in Basilan was also very important, as well as some other factors.[11]

Strong Spanish fleet led by the Governor-General of the Philippines, Narciso Claveria, invaded in 1848. fort Balangingi on Tungkil, one of the Sultanate of Sulu islands. The fort was conquered, but the local commander managed to avoid capture. After that, the Spanish conquered Maluso on Basilan island.[12]

During the year 1850, Spanish Governor-General of the Philippines Antonio de Urbistondo, again attacked Balangingi on the island Tungkil and destroyed remaining fortifications. Later, on 28. February 1851, he attacked Јolo and completely destroyed and burned the town. On that occasion he seized 112 pieces of artillery.[13]

The Spanish officially declared the annexation of the Sultanate of Sulu in April 1851, during the reign of Sultan Mohammad Pulalun Kiram. Only territory of North Borneo was exempt from this annexation.[14]

Sultan Jamalul A’Lam

To the throne of Sultanate of Sulu came Sultan Jamalul A’Lam in 1862. He was son of the previous Sultan, Mohammad Pulalun Kiram. Sultan Jamalul A’Lam was the ruler of Sulu, until his death, in 1881. During his reign, there was a significant number of important events concerning Sultanate.[15]

On 21. February 1876, after a series of unsuccessful attempts, the Spanish launched a large-scale attack on Jolo. Their contingent, led by Admiral Jose Malcampo, consisted of 9000 soldiers, 11 cargo ships, 11 gunboats, and 11 steamships. They conquered Jolo and established a Spanish garrison there. This garnison was led by Captain Pascual Cervera. He was assigned to the function of the military governor, which he held until December 1876. Until 1899. this position was held by a certain number of Spanish officers. The Spanish built fort in Jolo, but they did not feel safe there, because of the frequent attacks by the population of Sulu.[16]

Sultan of Sulu signed a peace treaty with the Spanish on 22. July 1878. According to the Spanish version, it was transfer of the sovereignty over Sulu archipelago, while by version in Tausug language it was introducing a protectorate. After the signing of the peace, Sultan Jamalul A’Lam moved his court in Maymbung.[17]

Also, there were some major events on the southern borders of the Sultanate of Sulu, during this period. In 1865, the American Consul to Brunei, Claude Lee Moses, concluded with the Sultanate of Sulu ten-year lease agreement on the North Borneo. Due to financial difficulties, he had to transfer his rights to the Austro-Hungarian consul in Hong Kong, baron Gustav von Overbeck. Sultan Jamalul A’Lam on 22. January 1878. signed an agreement with baron von Overbeck and British, brothers Alfred and Edward Dent. By terms of this agreement, the North Borneo given in a ten-year lease to the Company Dent and Oferbek. In return, the Sultanate received the necessary weapons and certain funds, which are paid annually. Due to the signing of the mentioned peace of 22nd July 1878, the property of Company Dent and Overbeck at the North Borneo was threatened.[18]

In 1880. Overbeck transferred his rights to the Dent brothers. The British established in July 1881 British North Borneo Provisional Association Ltd. In May 1882, when this association get the Charter of Queen Victoria, they formed the North Borneo Chartered Company. The company strengthened in this area, and stopped the spread of the Spanish sphere of influence to Borneo.[19]

Sultan Badarud-Din II

Sultan Badarud-Din II was the son of Sultan Jamalul A’Lam. He came to the throne of Sulu after his father’s death, in 1881. He ruled for three years. Sultan Badarud-Din II died on 22 February 1884, without male heir.[20]

Sultan Jamalul-Kiram II (first reign)

Jamalul-Kiram II was declared Sultan by his supporters in 1884, following the death of his brother, Sultan Badarud-Din II. It is believed that the earlier name of Sultan Jamalul-Kiram II was Amirul Kiram II. His reign was unsuccessfully challenged by the grandson of Sultan Shakirul-Lah, Datu (Prince) Aliud-Din. Because of that, Aliud-Din was forced to flee to the island Basilan. As a mediator between the Sultan and Aliud-Din appeared Harun Ar-Rashid (descendant of Alimud-Din by Datu Putong).[21]

Sultan Harun Ar-Rashid

Spanish intrigue led to the arrival of the mentioned Harun Ar-Rashid at the Sultan’s throne. He was declared Sultan of Sulu in Manila in 1886. Harun Ar-Rashid never gained the support of the majority of the population Sulu. When in 1894. became clear, that he is no longer necessary to the Spanish, he was forced to abdicate. He went to Palawan, where he died in 1899.[22]

The Chinese who lived at Sulu Archipelago were supplying Sultanate with arms. It was used for fighting against the Spanish. In exchange, they took slaves and material goods. At that time Chinese prevailed in Sulu trade.[23]

In April 1887. The Spanish suddenly attacked Maymbung, then capital of the Sultanate. On that occasion, they seized a large amount of weapons. Property of the local Chinese was destroyed, and they were deported to Jolo. In 1888, despite the fact that it was a leased territory, British proclaimed they protectorate in North Borneo.[24]

Sultan Jamalul-Kiram II (second reign)

In 1894. Sultan Jamalul-Kiram II managed to re-assert his authority in this monarchy. The Spanish finally admitted him as the Sultan of Sulu. Jamalul-Kiram II died on 7. June 1936.[25]

During his rule, in 1895, the unit of the Sultanate of Sulu, led by prominent military leaders, brothers Datu Julkarnain and Datu Kalbi, attacked the Spanish troops in the Jolo. However, this attack was rejected by the combined forces of the Spanish Army and military units of their Filipino allies.[26]

The Spanish have lost the Spanish – American War. Under the terms of the Paris Peace, 1898, they gave certain territories to the United States of America. Among these territories were the Philippines. Concerning these circumstances, U.S. Brigadier General John Coalter Bates made the agreement with the Sultan of Sulu Jamalul-Kiram II, on 26th August 1899. It is interesting that, under the terms of the agreement, although it acknowledges the supremacy of Americans, the Sultanate of Sulu remained full sovereignty over the North Borneo.[27]

Conclusion

In the tumultuous period, as was the 19th century, the Sultanate of Sulu came in contact with various colonial powers of the time, such as: Spain, United Kingdom, France and the United States. These contacts were usually concerning conflicts between them, although there were some inter-state cooperation.

Although the Sultanate of Sulu entered in the 19th century as an important regional entity, its influence in the region has decreased during this century. As in previous centuries, the Sultanate of Sulu led continual struggle with the world’s colonial powers, but this time appeared some new factors. In the first place it was a more modern weapons, which world powers began to use. Appearance of steamships, for example, has had a major impact on the balance of power in the maritime domination. The Sultanate of Sulu haven’t had industrial and economic base for the production or supply of modern weapons. Despite persistent and courageous struggle for freedom of the Sultans, the leaders, and the people of Sulu, the impact of this state in the region was gradually decreasing in the age of the industrial and technological revolution.

ALEKSANDAR BAČKO

Belgrade, 2012.

Sources and literature

[1] Frans Welman, Sabah, Borneo Trilogy, Book One, Volume 1, 2011. (further: Welman), 161; Keat Gin Ooi, Southeast Asia: A Historical Encyclopedia, from Angkor Wat to East Timor, Volume 1, 2004. (further: Ooi), 154; Vic Hurley, Swish of the Kris, the Story of the Moros, 2010 (further: Hurley), 121.

[2] The History of Sulu, Division of Ethnology Publications, Volume 4, 1905, (further: The History of Sulu), 190 – 193; Sixto Y. Orosa, The Sulu Archipelago and its people, 1923, (further: Orosa), 29; Eufronio Melo Alip, Political and Cultural History of the Philippines: Since the British Occupation, 1949, 27; Ahmad Ibrahim, Sharon Siddique, Yasmin Hussain, Readings on Islam in Southeast Asia, Institute of Southeast Asian studies, Singapore 1985. (further: Ibrahim, Siddique, Hussain), 50 – 51, 55; Ooi, 154; Welman, 161; Hurley, 121.

[3] Orosa, 29; The History of Sulu, 193; Ibrahim, Siddique, Hussain, 50 – 51; Philippine studies, Volume 42, Manila 1994. (further: Philippine studies), 33.

[4] Ibrahim, Siddique, Hussain, 55; Orosa, 29; The History of Sulu, 193; Philippine studies, 26, 33, 37; Gregorio F. Zaide, World History, 1994. (further: Zaide, World History), 311.

[5] The History of Sulu, 193; Orosa, 29; Ibrahim, Siddique, Hussain, 55; Clemencio Montecillo Bascar, Sultanate of Sulu: the unconquered kingdom, Western Mindanao State University, 2003. (further:  Bascar), 19; Philippine studies, 26, 33, 37.

[6] Orosa, 29; The History of Sulu, 193, 199; Bascar, 19; Ibrahim, Siddique, Hussain, 55; Philippine studies, 33, 37.

[7] The History of Sulu, 193.

[8] Orosa, 29.

[9] Ibrahim, Siddique, Hussain, 55; The History of Sulu, 218; Orosa, 31; Philippine studies, 27, 33; Bascar, 19; Gémino H. Abad, Memories, visions, and scholarship, and other essays, University of the Philippines, Center for Integrative and Development Studies, 2001. (further: Abad), 106, 133; Samuel K. Tan, Filipino Muslim perceptions of their history and culture as seen through indigenous written sources, 2003. (further: Tan), 16.

[10] Robert Aldrich, Greater France: A History of French Overseas Expansion, 1996, 75; Nicholas Tarling, The Cambridge History of Southeast Asia: Volume 2, The Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries, 1994, 27, 43; Jose Torres, John Nery, Into the mountain, 2001, 165; The History of Sulu, 199.

[11] The History of Sulu, 199.

[12] The History of Sulu, 199, 201, 204.

[13] The History of Sulu, 206, 224.

[14] The History of Sulu, 209 – 212.

[15] Ibrahim, Siddique, Hussain, 55; Orosa, 31; The History of Sulu, 224, 233; Philippine studies, 33, 37.

[16] Orosa, 32; The History of Sulu, 224, 248; Abad, 106, 133; Tan, 16.

[17] The History of Sulu, 229, 232.

[18] Philippine studies, 27 – 28; The History of Sulu, 225 – 226; Volker Schult, Wunsch und Wirklichkeit, Deutsch–philippinische Beziehungen im Kontext globaler Verflechtungen 1860–1945, Berliner Südostasien-Studien, Band 8, Berlin 2008. (further: Schult), 51 – 53.

[19] Schult, 51 – 53.

[20] Ibrahim, Siddique, Hussain, 55; Orosa, 33; Philippine studies, 33, 37; The History of Sulu, 237; Schult, 63; Tan, 16; Abad, 106.

[21] Philippine studies, 30, 37; Orosa, 34 – 35, 107; Habib Jamasali Sharief Rajah Bassal Abdurahman, The Sultanate of Sulu: their dominion, 2002. (further: Abdurahman), 80; Abad, 106, 133; Schult, 63; Tan, 16.

[22] Bascar, 19; Orosa, 34; Ibrahim, Siddique, Hussain, 55; Schult, 63; Abad, 133; Philippine studies, 30, 33, 38.

[23] Schult, 64.

[24] Schult, 60, 64, 78; The History of Sulu, 241.

[25] Orosa, 35, 107; Abdurahman, 80; Bascar, 19; Ibrahim, Siddique, Hussain, 55; Philippine studies, 30; Tan, 16; Abad, 106, 133.

[26] Gregorio F. Zaide, The pageant of Philippine history: political, economic, and socio-cultural, Volume 1, 1979, 556; Salah Jubair, Bangsamoro, 1999, 53.

[27] The History of Sulu, 245; Philippine studies, 28; Orosa, 35, 37; Bascar, 87 – 88; Zaide, World History, 311.

NOTES FROM THE HISTORY OF THE SULTANATE OF SULU DURING THE 19th CENTURY – PERIOD OF TEN RULERS

CONFLICTS BETWEEN THE SULTANATE OF SULU AND THE DUTCH REPUBLIC AT MID-18th CENTURY

Dedicated to His Majesty Sultan Muedzul Lail Tan Kiram of Sulu

Head of the Royal House Sultanate of Sulu

Introduction

In the history of the Sultanate of Sulu, there was a number of important and often epochal events that have significantly influenced the state system and the people of the island monarchy. Neither the 18th century is no different from other periods of the past of the Sultanate of Sulu. Among the important events during this period were the conflicts of the Sultanate with the Republic of Holland.

Sultanate of Sulu

A number of islands that are surrounding the Sulu Sea, as well as parts of larger islands of Mindanao and Borneo, are the territories that have historically belonged or still belong to the Sultanate of Sulu. This area is populated by Tausug people (or: Joloano, Sulu, Suluk), which mostly belongs to the Islamic religion. Today most of these people lives in Sulu Archipelago (Sulu, Basilan, Tawi – Tawi, and many other smaller islands). There are also Tausugs in other parts of the Philippines: in the city of Manila, as well as on the islands of Palawan, Cebu (Segbu) and Mindanao. There is a certain number of this people in the province of Sabah in Malaysia. At the turn of the 20th in 21st century, there was total number of about 1 100 000 Tausugs. These people speak the language, which belongs to Austronesian language group, more precisely the Central – Philippine languages.[1]

Jolo (Sulu) appeared in Chinese historical sources as early as 13th and 14th century. At that time, trade was developed between the islands of Sulu and China. It is considered, that the Islamization of Sulu by the Chinese Muslims and Arabs began in that period.[2]

Prominent explorer and Islamic religious teacher of Arabic origin, Said Abubakar Abirin, was born in Johor on Malay Peninsula (in the present-day Malaysia). During the first half of the 15th century, he came on the islands of the archipelago of Sulu. There he married a local princess Paramisuli. After the death of his father in law Raj Baguinde, about 1450, Said Abubakar founded the powerful Sultanate of Sulu. As its first sultan, he took the ruler name Sharif Ul – Hashim.[3]

When in the year 1571. Miguel López de Legazpi on behalf of the Spanish crown won Manila, there was a establishment of colonial power in much of the Philippine Islands. However, the Spanish power and influence were not equally represented throughout the archipelago. Military units of the Sultanate of Sulu and Mindanao defeated the Spanish troops and maintain independence in the long term. Also, many mountain areas in the interior of the Philippine Islands remained virtually untouched. Spanish colonies in the Philippines were ruled by the governor, who was responsible to Viceroy of Mexico. The Spaniards considered Philippines, in administrative terms, a branch of its colonies in Latin America.[4]

Sultanate of Sulu and North Borneo

Sultanate of Sulu and North Borneo

 

 

Dutch Republic

In times of conflict between the Dutch Republic and the Sultanate of Sulu in the 18th century, this European country was a confederate republic and officially called the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands (Dutch: Zeven Verenigde Republiek der Nederlanden). The Dutch Republic was founded in year 1581, after the liberation from Spanish authorities. The Dutch provinces were previously ruled by the Habsburg Spain. In 1568. Dutch people led by William I of Orange (Willem van Oranje) revolted against the Spanish King Philip II of Habsburg. This was the beginning of a very long Eighty Years War (1568 – 1648), also called the War for Dutch independence. In 1580. some of the Dutch provinces signed the Union of Utrecht, which laid foundations for their unification. The formal declaration of independence was signed on 26 July 1581. Spain did not recognize Dutch independence until the signing of a twelve-year truce in 1609.[5]

Despite to conflicts with the Spaniards, the Dutch in that period were able to develop a very advanced state, in economic, political and military terms. It is the 17th century called the Dutch Golden Age (Dutch: Gouden Eeuw). Netherlands at that time established trade links with many overseas countries and provinces, which further led to the establishment of its colonial policies. In this way, Dutch Republic was ranked among the world powers of 17th century.[6]

The Dutch East India Company (Dutch: West-Indische Vereenigde Compagnie, VOC for short), was established in 1602. At that time, the Dutch parliament awarded the company for the first time a monopoly on 21 years of state colonies in Asia. The Dutch East India Company thus became the second international company in the world, after two years earlier had founded the British East India Company. The Dutch company had primarily commercial function, but it owned and substantial (quasi) state elements, such as the ability to wage war, and negotiates peace, establish new colonies, perform judicial functions (including the execution of convicts), minting money, etc.[7]

East India Company managed the Dutch colonies in what is now Indonesia (Dutch East India), Taiwan, Sri Lanka (Ceylon Dutch), some parts of the Indian subcontinent, South Africa and elsewhere. The first Dutch colonies on the Indonesian islands were established in the early 17th century (in Java Banten in 1603. and Jayakarta or Batavia, on the same island in 1611). Batavia, later Jakarta, was the center of the colonial Dutch East India Company.[8]

The Dutch also founded the West India Company (Dutch: Geoctroyeerde Westindische Compagnie, abbreviated WIC) in 1621. It has administered in the similar way their possessions in South America, the Caribbean, North America and in parts of Africa.[9]

The Spanish Empire

The third important factor in the Sulu – Dutch conflicts was the Spanish Empire. One of the first colonial European powers, began its overseas expansion during the 15th century. When Christopher Columbus in 1492. discovered America, he immediately proclaimed the Spanish rule in the new territory. The so-called Spanish Golden Age (Spanish: El Siglo de Oro) began right after the end of the Reconquista (1492), and the unification of Castile and Aragon. In the early 16th century Habsburgs came to power in Spain. They ruled the country at the time of its greatest progress.[10]

During the 16th and 17th century the Spanish were significantly expanding their overseas possessions. They were the leading European colonial power of that period. Under their rule was large part of the South American continent, Central America, as well as substantial parts of North America. From America, across the Pacific, their power spread to the Philippines. There were also Spanish colonies in Africa. There were some of European countries and regions under the supreme authority of the Spanish crown in certain times, for example: Netherlands, Milan and Kingdom of Sicily.[11]

Ferdinand Magellan landed in the Philippines in 1521. and declared the supremacy of the Spanish king Charles I of Habsburg over these islands. Magellan was killed shortly after, at Philippine Island Mactan, in conflict with the army led by the local ruler, datu Lapu – Lapu (datu is noble or ruler title in Southeast Asia). Spaniards did not returned to the Philippines until 1543, when they were led by Lopez de Villalobos. Then they actually established their power on the part of the archipelago, which they called after king Philip II of Habsburg.[12]

The background of the conflict

The military conflict between the forces of the Sultanate of Sulu and the Netherlands is necessary to consider in broader historical context. Firstly, it was caused by Dutch colonialism, which was typical for European powers of that time.[13]

Sultanate of Sulu was among rare non-European countries that were strongly resisted European colonialism in the mid-18th century. It controlled the trade routes and waterways in the Sulu Sea and the Celebes Sea, which are linking Sulu Archipelago, north coastal areas of Borneo, southern coast of the island of Mindanao, and rest of Philippine Archipelago. These waterways were of great trading and strategic importance.[14]

Long wars and the struggle for colonial supremacy in the East between the Netherlands and Spain, were of great importance for the Dutch – Sulu conflict. These Dutch – Spanish wars were dating, with occasional interruptions, ever since the establishment of the Dutch Republic.[15]

There were different kinds of relationships between the Sultanate of Sulu and the Netherlands. It is known that the Dutch in the in 17th century attacked Jolo, but at that time as allies of the Sultanate of Sulu. The attack was directed against the Spanish occupation troops, which were located in the Jolo. The Dutch, along with troops of Sulu, in July 1645. conducted a combined artillery and infantry attack on a Spanish fort in the town. This action led to the withdrawal of the Spaniards from Jolo.[16]

The course of the conflict

In the period leading up to the clash with the Dutch, Sultan Alimud Din I originally had capital in the island Dungun Tawi – Tawi (Sulu Archipelago). In year 1736, the seat of his court was transferred from there to Jolo, the old capital of Sultanate of Sulu.[17]

There are recorded opinions of some historians, whose assurance we could not find in other sources, that in 1744. and 1746. the Dutch East India Company attacked Jolo by cannons from its ships.[18]

In mid-18th century Dutch invaded and occupied Maluso on the island of Basilan in the Sulu Archipelago. Soon after, in 1746, they have established their base in Maluso, the fortress which they called Port Holland.[19]

The Dutch attacked Taguima on the island of Basilan in 1747, with two of their ships. Their troops were defeated by one of the commanders of the Sultan of Sulu, known to the sources by name Bantilan. He was able to permanently oust the Dutch East India Company troops from Port Holland. On this occasion, fort was completely burned, but its name is still known as part of the settlement Malusa. The rest of the Dutch withdrew in Batavia on Java.[20]

Consequences

Shortly after the victory over the Dutch, namely in 1749, datu Bantilan overthrows his elder brother Alimud Din I and became the new Sultan of Sulu. His ruler name was Muizud Din I. The former sultan was forced to withdrew to the Taguima on the island of Basilan, together with members of his immediate family and loyal followers. After that, in 1750, Alimud Din I moved to Manila, where he was greeted with all royal honors. At his return to Sulu, in Zamboanga on Mindanao island, because of the alleged conspiracy, he was captured by the Spaniards, and sent into captivity in Manila, specifically in the local Fort Santiago. Alimud Din I returned on the throne in 1764. and held position of Sultan of Sulu until 1773.[21]

Because of the decisive struggle Sultanate of Sulu and its people for freedom and independence, the pressure of the Dutch on this monarchy was significantly reduced. The Dutch held their own territory in the Dutch East Indies long after these events, until the Second World War and the period immediately after it.[22]

Clashes between the Spaniards and the Sultanate of Sulu continued shortly after this period. Both sides were attacking and devastating the enemy strongholds. Further developments in relations between the Sultanate of Sulu and the Spanish Empire are beyond the scope of this paper.[23]

Conclusion

The conflict between the Sultanate of Sulu and the Netherlands in the 18th century had its main roots in the expansionism of the European powers in previous centuries. This expansionism was reflected not only by winning the non-European territories and the capturing of local government and tribal organizations, but also in intense fighting between the colonial powers at the global level. A significant influence on the background of this war had a long, intense conflict of interest between the Netherlands and the Spanish Empire.

During the period of a few years, as the conflict lasted, there were two main phases. The first is the Dutch attack on the Sultanate of Sulu, when the initiative was in the hands of the Dutch East India Company. The culmination of this phase was the establishment of the Dutch fort and base on the island of Basilan. The second phase, in which the forces of the Sultanate of Sulu had the initiative, led to the defeat of the Dutch East India Company forces in the Sulu archipelago, destruction of Port Holland, expulsion of the Dutch, and minimizing of their impact on the area.

Internally, this conflict to some extent influenced the temporary change of government of Sulu. Only after a number of years, and the great difficulties, Sultan Alimud Din I managed to return to the throne of this island monarchy.

ALEKSANDAR BAČKO

Belgrade, 2012.

Sources and literature

[1] Barbara A. West, Encyclopedia of the peoples of Asia and Oceania, New York 2009, 788; Alexander Adelaar, Nikolaus P. Himmelmann, The Austronesian Languages of Asia and Madagascar, New York 2005, 4 – 5; James J. Fox, Clifford Sather, Origins, Ancestry and Alliance – Explorations in Austronesian Ethnography, Canberra 2006, 319 – 331.

[2] Geoffrey C. Gunn, History Without Borders, The Making of an Asian World Region, 1000 – 1800, Hong Kong 2011. (further: Gunn), 93.

[3] Maria Christine N. Halili, Philippine history, Manila 2004, (further: Halili), 52; Ahmad Ibrahim, Sharon Siddique, Yasmin Hussain, Readings on Islam in Southeast Asia, Institute of Southeast Asian studies, Singapore 1985. (further: Ibrahim, Siddique, Hussain), 50, 52, 55; Hilario Milijon Gomez, The Moro rebellion and the search for peace, 2000. (further: Gomez), 16; Gunn, 93.

[4] Svet u ekspanziji, Ilustrovana istorija sveta I – IV, Treći tom, Beograd – Ljubljana 1984. (in Serbian), 242; Emma Helen Blair, The Philippine Islands, 1493-1803 Volume III, 1569-1576, 2006, 3, 5, 11.

[5] Maarten Prak, The Dutch Republic in the Seventeenth Century – The Golden Age, New York 2005. (further: Prak), 20 – 21; Wouter Troost, William III the Stadholder – King, A Political Biography, 2005, 1 – 2; J. L. Price, The Dutch Republic in the Seventeenth Century, New York – Hong Kong 1998, 22 – 23, 31; Lionel Bently, Uma Suthersanen, Paul Torremans, Global Copyright – Three Hundred Years Since the Statute of Anne, from 1709. to Cyberspace, 91.

[6] Prak, 1; Price, 152; R. Po-Chia Hsia, Henk F. K. Van Nierop, Calvinism and Religious Toleration in the Dutch Golden Age, Cambridge 2004, 2, 5, 9, 53, 87, 174.

[7] Ella Gepken – Jager, Gerard van Solinge, Levinus Timmerman, VOC 1602 – 2002,  400 Years of Company Law, Law of Business and Finance, Vol. 6, Deventer 2005. (further: Gepken – Jager, van Solinge, Timmerman), XII, 47, 54 – 55, 163, 224, 230 – 232, 258.

[8] Gepken – Jager, van Solinge, Timmerman, 111, 232; Robert Parthesius, Dutch Ships in Tropical Waters – The Development of the Dutch East India Company (VOC) shipping network in Asia 1595 – 1660, Amsterdam 2010. (further: Parthesius), 12 – 13, 46, 114, 119 – 120, 137, 140, 160, 170.

[9] Gepken – Jager, van Solinge, Timmerman, 67 – 68, 164 – 165, 173, 175.

[10] Chiyo Ishikawa, Spain In The Age Of Exploration, 1492 – 1819, Seattle – Singapore 2004. (further: Ishikawa), 50 – 53, 97; Anthony J. Cascardi, Ideologies of History in the Spanish Golden Age, Pennsylvania State University 1997, 53 – 54, 60.

[11] Ishikawa, 23, 50, 60, 87, 89.

[12] Ishikawa, 60; Donald F. Lach, Asia in the Making of Europe, Vol. I, The Century of Discovery, Book 2, Cicago 1994, 634 – 635, 642 – 643.

[13] Gepken – Jager, van Solinge, Timmerman, 88, 112; Parthesius, 40, 99.

[14] Gunn, 79, 94, 99, 102, 106, 109, 152.

[15] Gepken – Jager, van Solinge, Timmerman, 162 – 163.

[16] César Adib Majul, Muslims in the Philippines, 1973. (further: Majul), 155; Association of South-East Asian Studies in the United Kingdom (ASEASUK) news, 15 – 19, Centre for South-East Asian Studies, University of Hull, Hull 1994, 38; Gregorio F. Zaide, The Philippines since pre-Spanish times, Volume 2. – The Philippines since the British invasion, Philippine Education Company, 1957, 314; Historical calendar, National Historical Commission, 1970, 121.

[17] Majul, 21.

[18] Data from internet presentation Wikipedia in English (internet address: en.wikipedia.org), article History of Basilan (further: History of Basilan)

[19] History of Basilan; Data from internet presentation Muslim Mindanao (internet address: http://www.muslimmindanao.ph)

[20] Congressional edition, 4240, U.S. Congress, 1902. (further: Congressional edition), 178 – 179.

[21] Halili, 125; Ibrahim, Siddique, Hussain, 55; Gomez, 21; David P. Chandler, David Joel Steinberg, In search of Southeast Asia, a modern history, University of Hawaii 1987, 94; Congressional edition, 178 – 179; History of Basilan.

[22] Henry E. J. Stanley, The Philippine islands, Moluccas, Siam, Cambodia, Japan, and China, at the close of the sixteenth century, London 1868, 361 – 362; Gordon L. Rottman, World War II, Pacific Island Guide, 2002, 154, 160, 165, 198.

[23] Halili, 126; History of Basilan.

CONFLICTS BETWEEN THE SULTANATE OF SULU AND THE DUTCH REPUBLIC AT MID-18th CENTURY