TITLES OF EAST AFRICAN TRADITIONAL RULERS, ROYALTY, CHIEFS, NOBILITY AND CHIVALRY

Aleksandar Bačko has published his new book, “Titles of East African traditional rulers, royalty, chiefs, nobility and chivalry“.

This book is dedicated to His Majesty Rukirabasaija Agutamba Solomon Gafabusa Iguru I Omukama (King) of The Kingdom of Bunyoro-Kitara, Ruler of Hoima, Masindi, Kibaale, Buliisa, Kiryandongo, Kagadi and Kakumiro, etc. etc. etc.

“Titles of East African traditional rulers, royalty, chiefs, nobility and chivalry“ has 141 pages.

This book can be downloaded free (in PDF format), following this link:

Titles of East African Traditional Rulers

 

Titles of East African Traditional Rulers

TITLES OF EAST AFRICAN TRADITIONAL RULERS, ROYALTY, CHIEFS, NOBILITY AND CHIVALRY

NOTES ABOUT CERTAIN EAST AFRICAN TRADITIONAL TITLES

Dedicated to His Majesty Rukirabasaija Agutamba Solomon Gafabusa Iguru I by The Grace of God, Omukama of The Kingdom of Bunyoro-Kitara, Ruler of Hoima, Masindi, Kibaale, Buliisa, Kiryandongo, Kagadi and Kakumiro, The Grandson of Kabalega, The Healer, The Orphan Protector, The Hater of Rebellion, The Lion of Bunyoro, The Hero of Bunyoro, The Hero of Kabalega, etc. etc. etc. – 49th Omukama of The Kingdom of Bunyoro-Kitara, 27th Omukama in The Babiito Dynasty – The Sovereign Head and Grand Master of The Royal Order of Omujwaara Kondo and The Royal Order of Engabu, The Sovereign Head, Grand Master and Protector of The Most Honourable Order of Omukama Chwa II Kabalega, The Patron, Protector and Granter of The Chivalrous and Religious Order of the Crown of Thorns, Patron, Protector and Granter of The Sovereign, Knightly and Noble Order of The Lion and Black Cross etc. etc. etc.

 

HM Omukama Solomon Iguru

 

 

Author: Aleksandar Bačko 1st OEBKK

In addition to previous work, named “Titles of Ugandan Traditional Rulers, Royalty, Chiefs, Nobility and Chivalry”, we are continuing research about the traditional titles in the area of East Africa.[1]

This region has rich and interesting history. In the following text it will be presented overview of a number of traditional titles, in area of contemporary: Kenya, Tanzania, Burundi and South Sudan, countries in East Africa.

 

Aanaangwa – See: Umwaanaangwa.

 

Aeene

Traditional rulers of Ufipa (in contemporary Tanzania) were at first styled Aeene, and later Mweene. This term can be translated into English language as: “king”, “chief”, “territorial chief”, or “district governor”. See also: Aeene nnsi, Mweene.[2]

 

Aeene Nnsi

Aeene Nnsi (Umweene Nnsi) means “village headman”. It refers to “the lowest level of the hierachical pyramid of state power” in Ufipa (nowadays in Tanzania). Bearer of this title, “unlike his political superiors, was not appointed from above, by the Mweene, but elected by the elders of his village”. It is believed, that there were several hundreds of “Aeene Nnsi” at the same time. See also: Aene.[3]

 

Alaasi

Alaasi (Unndassi) was the title of the military governors in Ufipa, located in contemporary Tanzania. Bearers of this title were “entrusted… with the security of Ufipa’s borders”, by the ruler. There were six of them, all commoners.[4]

 

Ataambikwa – See: Ataamikwa.

 

Ataamikwa

Ataamikwa (or Ataambikwa), “worshiped ones”, were the council of elders in Ufipa, located in contemporary Tanzania. More precisely, they were “self–electing council of elder commoners”. Among their rights was election of the King descending from Twa group (dynasty). Also, Ataamikwa “had power to advise the queen mother to depose a king who was held to violated traditional norms, and such advice was mandatory”.[5]

 

Avasongo wa nunsi

According to some authors, “Avasongo wa nunsi” was term for “an amorphous group of elders” in chiefdoms belonging to Nyiha people (located in nowadays Tanzania).[6]

 

Awahombe

Title Awahombe was noted among members of Nyiha people, living in contemporary Tanzania. This term is translated into English as “chief’s councelors”. One of the roles of Awahombe is “to turn a man into a chief, then present him to the people”. There were one to three Awahombe (councelors) by each Mwene (chief) among Nyiha, in late 19th century.[7]

 

2

Old map of East Africa (Meyers Konversations-Lexikon, 4. Auflage, Band 14, 1888, page 300a)

 

Diwani

Diwani was the title of the traditional rulers of Pemba (in Zanzibar, contemporary semi-autonomous region, located in Tanzania). According to local oral tradition, “rulers of Pemba were called Diwani since the time of Persians”. The most famous Diwani were Ngwachani and Mkame Ndume. This title expired after 1878, “as the last elected Diwani was never enthroned“.[8]

 

Hami

Hami was the title of the traditional rulers of Zanzibar (in contemporary Tanzania). Hamis were informaly styled Sultans. Term “Hami” can literally be translated into English as “protector”. See also: Sultan.[9]

 

iWakwiifatila

Female magistrate officials in Ufipa (nowadays in Tanzania), called iWakwiifatila, had task “to adjudicate and, where appropriate, to punish sexual offences…” These officials were mandated to use force against offenders, “through… appointed male deputies or ‘soldiers’… and… impose heavy fines…”.[10]

  

Jumbe

Rulers of Hadimu (located in Zanzibar, contemporary semi-autonomous region of Tanzania), were titled in different ways: Jumbe, Mfalume, or Mwyinyi Mkuu. See also those terms.[11]

 

Kadhi

In Zanzibar (nowadays region of Tanzania), there was office of “Diwani’s Kadhi”. Term “Kadhi” (Kadi, Qadi) is well known in Islamic world. It refers to judge in Sharia law. See also: Diwani.[12]

  

Laibon

 Laibon (Oloiboni) was the title of the paramount chief of Masai in Kenya. Bearers of this title were originally chief ritual leaders (spiritual leaders, or medicine men). Later, they also became political and military leaders.[13]

  

Liwali

 Liwali or Wali was the title of the ruler or of the governor of Mombasa in nowadays Kenya (in Swahili – Kiswahili language). This title was used during 1698 – 1728, then 1729 – 1746, and finally between 1837. and 1895. See also description of the title: Wali.[14]

Liwali was also one of the two types of local government officials in Zanzibar (nowadays in Tanzania). Later, this title was replaced with title Mudir. Bearers of the title Mudir were “Members of His Highness Zanzibar Service”.[15]

 

Maliki

Traditional rulers of Kilwa Kisiwani, located in Zanzibar (nowadays semi-autonomous region of Tanzania) were bearing title Sultan, or Maliki. See also term Sultan.[16]

 

Mangi

This was the title of the chief, as well as title of the paramount chief. It was present among traditional rulers in certain areas of contemporary Tanzania, as in: United Waarusha Paramount Chiefdom, Keni, Kibosho, Kilema, Kirua, Machame, Mamba, Marangu, Mbokomu, Mkuu, Moshi, Mwika, Sina, Ussere, Mbaga, Mwiku, Suji, Usangi.[17]

 Mangi Mkuu was the title of the traditional rulers of Chagga (Wachagga) states, located in contemporary Tanzania. Bearers of this title were elected for life, “according the customs and traditions”.[18]

Mangi Mrwe was the title of the paramount chief of Ugweno (located in nowadays Tanzania). This title was first used during 17th century. One of the bearers of this title was Ghendewa. Mangi Mrwe was „assisted by a council of ministers and the Wamagi (District Chiefs)“.[19]

 

Mangi Mkuu – See: Mangi.

 

Mangi Mrwe – See: Mangi.

 

Masheha – See: Sheha.

 

Mfalume

Sultans of Pate (in contemporary Kenya) were styled Mfalume in Swahili (Kiswahili) language. Same title were bearing Sultans of Witu, also located in nowadays Kenya. See also: Sultan.[20]

Traditional rulers of Hadimu (in Zanzibar, nowadays region of Tanzania), were styled Mfalume, or Jumbe. Term Mfalume can be translated into English as “Monarch”. See also: Jumbe.[21]

 

3

Detail of the old map (M. Pringle, Towards the Mountains of the Moon, A journey in East Africa, 1884, page 421)

 

 

Mkuu – See: Mwyinyi Mkuu, Mangi.

 

Mtema

Traditional rulers of Ubena, located in nowadays Tanzania, were titled Mtema. Last Mtema of Ubena (1928 – 1962) was Towegale Kiwanga III. Traditional rulers of certain polities, located in nowadays Tanzania in East Africa (Nguluhe, Iliole, Lungemba and Udongwe), were also styled Mtema.[22]

 

Mtemi

Traditional rulers of Usangu (Sangu), and Nguru, in nowadays Tanzania, were styled Mtemi. In Unyanyembe, rulers were initialy titled Ntemi, and later Mtemi. Native authorities in Dodoma Region of Tanzania were represented by 14 local Mtemi, at the same time. Title of Nyzmwezi people Chief, in contemporary Tanzania, was also Mtemi. See also: Ntemi.[23]

 

Mtwa

Title Mtwa was first used for traditional rulers of Uhehe (located in modern Tanzania). Later, this traditional rulers were styled Sultani (1896 – 1897), and then, after a period of vacancy, again Mtwa. See also: Sultani.[24]

  

Mtwale

Mtwale was the title of a chief, which was present among traditional rulers in Bunganda, located in nowadays Tanzania (not to be confused with Buganda in Uganda). See also: Sub-Mtwale.[25]

 

Mudir – See: Livali.

 

Mugave – See: Mugawe.

 

Mugawe

 Awahombe, chief’s councelors, “choose a new Mugawe (Mugave) from a non-chiefly clan and send him to join the chief-select in the house”. Mugave, “chief’s bodygard”, is one of two mayor court officials in chiefdoms of Nyiha people, living in contemporary Tanzania.[26]

 

Mutwale

Title Mutwale refers to “the head messenger and carrier of the stool and other symbols of the chief’s office” among Nyiha people (in nowadays Tanzania). Mutwale was one of two major court officials in the late 19th century.[27]

 

Mwami

Mwami is title of certain tradititional rulers in East Africa. This title was present among traditional rulers in some areas of contemporary Tanzania: Buzinja (Buzinza), Ushirombo, North Buhaya (Buha), Muhambwe , Buyungu, South Buha, Heru, Bunganda (in period 1931 – 1939), West Ussuwi and Bugufi.[28]

This was also the title of the traditional rulers (Kings) in contemporary Burundi, located in East Africa. Among “emblems” of Mwami of Burundi were: the drum (karyenda), the royal tombs, and “the annual propitiating rites of a bountiful harvest (umuganuro)“. See also: King, Sultan.[29]

 

Mwene

This title was present among traditional rulers in certain areas of contemporary Tanzania, more precisely in Bungu (also called Wungu, or Wawungu), Udinde, Nyamwanga (Unyamwanga), Pimbwe, Gongwe and Uluguru or Luguru (before 1906). Chiefs among members of Nyiha people, living in contemporary Tanzania, was styled Mwene. There were 12 chiefdoms among Nyiha in late 19th century, each headed by its own Mwene. See also: Mweene.[30]

 

Mweene

Ufipa traditional rulers (in contemporary Tanzania) were at first styled Aeene, and later Mweene. Rulers of Lyangalile (in Tanzania) were also titled Mweene. See also: Aeene, Mwene.[31]

 

Mweene wa Kulonsi

Mweene wa Kulonsi was the title of the Queen-Mother in Ufipa (nowadays in Tanzania). At the Royal Court, Mweene (King) was assisted by Mweene wa Kulonsi , as well as some court dignitaries. See also: Mweene.[32]

 

Mweene Wakucaandama – See: Wakucaandama.

 

Mwyinyi Mkuu

Mwyinyi Mkuu was the title of the traditional rulers of Zanzibar (contemporary semi-autonomous region of Tanzania). For this dignity, also are used terms: Jumbe, Mwyinyi Mkuu and Mfalume (see also).[33]

  

4

Zanzibar, detail of the old graphic (Émile Jonveaux, Two Years in East Africa, Adventures in Abyssinia and Nubia…, 1875, page 414).

 

 

Ntemi

Traditional rulers of Unyanyembe (in contemporary Tanzania), were initialy titled Ntemi, and later Mtemi. Chiefs of: Ikungu, Ipito, Kipembawe, Kiwele, Mwendo, Ngulu, Nkololo and Wikangulu (also in Tanzania) were also styled Ntemi.[34]

Ntemi chiefs “were served by a council and preformed a role, that was as much advisory as it was authoritarian. By the 19th century, there are estimated to have been more then 200 Ntemi chiefs in western and central Tanzania, each with about 1000 subjects”. See also: Mtemi.[35]

 

Oloiboni – See: Laibon.

 

Orkoiyoi

Orkoiyoi was the title of the paramount chief of Nandi in contemporary Kenya. Bearers of this title were originally chief ritual leaders. Later, they also became political and military leaders.[36]

 

Reth

Reth is the title of the traditional rulers of Shilluk (Chollo) ethnic group in South Sudan. Some of well known bearers of this title were: Bwoc, his son Dhotokh (c. 1670 – 1690), Dhokoth’s son Tugo (c. 1690 – 1710) and Reth Nyakwaa (c. 1780 – 1820). Current Reth of Shilluk is Kwongo wad Dak (since 1993).[37]

 

Sheha

Sheha (plural Masheha) was the title of the traditional rulers of Tumbatu in Zanzibar, today region of Tanzania. This title most likely presents variant of well known Islamic style Sheikh. It also refers to headmen, or appointed local government officials.[38]

 

Sheikh – See: Sheha.

 

Simbamwene

Traditional rulers, or Paramount Chiefs of Shambalai (Usambara in Swahili – Kiswahili), located in nowadays Tanzania, were titled Simbamwene. Literal meaning of this term is “Lion of Heaven”.[39]

 

Sub-Mtwale

Sub-Mtwale was the title of dignitaries in traditional African chiefdoms, located in area of contemporary Tanzania. It was just below the title of Mtwale. See also: Mtwale.[40]

 

Sultan

Rulers of Pate in nowadays Kenya was styled Sultan (or Mfaluma in Swahili – Kiswahili language). Rulers of Witu in contemporary Kenya were also bearing title of Sultan.[41]

Traditional rulers of Zanzibar (today semi-autonomous region of Tanzania), were titled Sultans. Same style was used for the rulers of Kilwa Kisiwani, located in Zanzibar. They were also styled Maliki.[42]

In 1904/1905, German colonial authorities recognized Mwami (King) Mwezi Gisabo, as “Sultan” of Burundi. Mwezi Gisabo was born about 1850, and died in year 1908.[43]

Also, between December 31st 1959, and December 9th 1962, Latham Leslie-Moore was self-proclaimed Sultan of Msimbati. This self-proclaimed Sultanate was suppressed by Tanganyika.[44]

The title of Sultan is certainly one of the most important and most frequent royal titles in countries with deeply rooted Islamic traditions. This title comes from the Arabic language and is derived from the term „sultah“, meaning „authority“ or „power“. See also: Hami, Maliki, Mfaluma, Mwezi, Sultani.[45]

 

Sultani

Sultani was variant of the title Sultan. It was used in Uhehe 1896 – 1897, and in Uluguru or Luguru (in contemporary Tanzania), after 1916. Other title of traditional rulers of Uhehe was Mtwa. See also: Mtwa, Sultan.[46]

  

5

East Africa, old map (T. O’Neill, Sketches of African Scenery, from Zanzibar to the Victoria Nyanza, 1878).

 

 

Twa

 It was ruling group or mutually “related dynasties” in Ufipa (in contemporary Tanzania). Twa was endogamous group. Kings of former Ufipa states were exclusively from Twa group.[47]

  

Umwaanaangwa

 In Ufipa, nowadays in Tanzania, Umwaanaangwa (Aanaangwa) was title of “a son of the king and a nonroyal wife and who, being excluded by descent from endogamous Twa group, was ineligible for the royal offices”. For Umwaanaangwa was reserved “the key post of of head of the royal household and army chief”.[48]

 

Umweene Nnsi – See: Aeene Nnsi.

 

Unndassi – See: Alaasi.

 

Unntalaila

Unntalaila was title of a “female official… at the Twa royal court” in Unfipa (in contemporary Tanzania). Sister of Mwene, or Mweene (traditional ruler) of Fipa (in Unfipa), bearing title Unntalaila, had “very high ritual status at Fipa court”.[49]

 

Unweene Nkaandawa

One of traditional titles of Sub – District Chief was Unweene Nkaandawa. This title was used in Unfipa (in nowadays southwestern Tanzania), among Fipa ethnic group.[50]

 

Wakucaandama

This was the title of official of the Ufipa Royal Court (located in contemporary Tanzania). Wakucaandama (or Mweene Wakucaandama) was “titular overlord of Nkansi’s Rukwa domain”. [51]

  

Wakulinaanga

Wakulinaanga was the title of official of the Royal Court of Ufipa (Fipa ethnic group, living in southwestern area of nowadays Tanzania). It is mentioned in literature that, at the Royal Court of Ufipa, “the case was first heard by Wakulinaanga and from him it could be referred to the Mweene himself”.[52]

  

Wali

This is the title of the rulers (or governors) of Mombasa, located in contemporary Kenya. In Swahili (Kiswahili) language, this title is translated as Liwali. See also: Liwali.[53]

This title came from Arabic language. In Arabic, Turkish and some other languages, meaning of the Wali (Vali) title is “governor”, more precisely “governor of a province”.[54]

 

Wamagi

Wamagi was a title of District Chiefs in Ugweno, located in contemporary Tanzania. Paramount Chief (Mangi Mrwe) of Ugweno was „assisted by a council of ministers and the Wamagi…“[55]

 

Wanamfumu

Wanamfumu was title of “the chief’s kinsmen”, or more precisely, the “member(s) of the chief’s agnatic lineage” of Nyiha people (living in contemporary Mbeya Region of Tanzania and in northeastern Zambia).[56]

 

 

[1] Aleksandar Bačko, Titles of Ugandan traditional rulers, royalty, chiefs, nobility and chivalry, Belgrade 2017. (further: Bačko, Titles…), 1 – 104 https://porodicnoporeklo.wordpress.com/2017/02/28/titles-of-ugandan-traditional-rulers-royalty-chiefs-nobility-and-chivalry/

[2] Ethnology, Volume 7, University of Pittsburgh, 1968. (further: Ethnology 7), 140, 156; Ethnographic Survey of Africa, East Central Africa, Parts 14 – 15, International African institute, 1962. (further: Ethnographic Survey 14 – 15), 20; World statesmen, Tanzania http://www.worldstatesmen.org/Tanzania_native.html#Shambalai

[3] Roy Willis, Public and personal ideology in an early state, State formation and political legitimacy, Political anthropology, Volume VI, Transaction books, New Brunswick (USA), Oxford (UK) 1988. (further: Willis, Public…), 88; Ethnographic Survey 14 – 15, 20.

[4] Ethnographic Survey 14 – 15, 20; Willis, Public…, 87.

[5] Roy G. Willis, A State in the Making, Myth, History, and Social Transformation in Pre-Colonial Ufipa, Indiana University Press, 1981. (further: Willis, A State…), 288; Willis, Public…, 88; Ethnographic Survey 14 – 15, 21; Andrew Roberts, A history of the Bemba, Political growth and change in north-eastern Zambia before 1900, University of Wisconsin Press, 1973. (further: Roberts), 310.

[6] C. Gregory Knight, Ecology and Change, Rural Modernization in an African Community, Academic Press, New York, San Francisco, London 1974. (further: Knight), 39; African Studies Bulletin, Volume 12, African Studies Association, 1969. (further: African Studies Bulletin), 268.

[7] Tanzania Notes and Records, Issues 65 – 67, Tanzania Society, 1966. (further: Tanzania Notes…), 12, 17 – 18; Knight, 39, 295; Roberts, 310; African Studies Bulletin, 268.

[8] Mohammed Ali Bakari, The Democratisation Process in Zanzibar, Hamburg African Studies 11, Institute of African Affairs, Hamburg 2001. (further: Bakari), 80; Zanzibar, An Account of Its People, Industries and History, Local Committee of the British Empire Exhibition, 1924. (further: Zanzibar), 62 – 63; World statesmen, Tanzania; A Short History of Zanzibar, Volume 1, Afro-Shirazi Party, 1974. (further: A Short History…), 29, 45, 57; Charles Ralph Boxer, Carlos De Azevedo, Fort Jesus and the Portuguese in Mombasa, 1593 – 1729, Hollis & Carter, 1960, 32; Christine Stephanie Nicholls, The Swahili coast – politics, diplomacy and trade on the East African littoral, 1798-1856, Africana Publishing Corporation, 1971, 42, 58 – 59, 314; Cyril Daryll Forde, Ethnographic survey of Africa, East Central Africa, Parts 9 – 13, 1953. (further: Forde), 96 – 97.

[9] Hermann F. Eilts, Ahmad Bin Na’aman’s Mission to the United States in 1840, 1962, 7; World statesmen, Zanzibar ( http://www.worldstatesmen.org/Tanzania.html#Zanzibar ).

[10] Anthropology, Volume 4, 1981, 3, 6 – 7; Willis, Public…, 89, 92; Willis, A State…, XV, 182, 315.

[11] Abdallah Salih Farsy, Seyyid Said Bin Sultan, Joint Ruler of Oman and Zanzibar (1804 – 1856), Lancers Books, 1986. (further: Farsy), 33; World statesmen, Tanzania.

[12] Emilia Justyna Powell, Islamic Law and International Law, Peaceful Resolution of Disputes, Oxford University Press, 108, 141 – 143; Abdulah Škaljić, Turcizmi u srpskohrvatskom jeziku, peto izdanje, Sarajevo 1985. (further: Škaljić), 378; Forde, 96 – 97.

[13] Elliot M. Fratkin, Laibon, An Anthropologist’s Journey with Samburu Diviners of Kenya, 2012, XI, 14 – 15; Elliot Fratkin, The Laibon Diviner and Healer, among Samburu Pastoralists of Kenya, Divination and Healing, Potent Vision, The University of Arizona Press, Tucson 2014, 207 – 226; World statesmen, Kenya; Tepilit Ole Saitoti, The Worlds of a Maasai Warrior, An Autobiography, University of California Press, Berkeley, Los Angeles 1988, XV, 53; Lisa McQuail, The Masai of Africa, First peoples, 2002, 42 – 43.

[14] Sarah Mirza, Margaret Strobel, Three Swahili Women, Life Histories from Mombasa, Kenya, Indiana University Press, Bloomington 1989, 31, 63, 130; World statesmen, Kenya; Law Reports of Kenya, Containing Cases Determined by the Supreme Court of the Colony and Protectorate of Kenya, Volume XXVII, 1954, VI, 116 – 119.

[15] John Middleton, Jane Campbell, Zanzibar, Its Society and its Politics, 1965. (further: Middleton, Campbell), 45.

[16] International Dictionary of Historic Places, Volume 4, Middle East and Africa, 1996, 429; World statesmen, Tanzania.

[17] Emma Hunter, Political Thought and the Public Sphere in Tanzania, Freedom, democracy and Citizenship in the Era of Decolonization, African Studies, Cambridge University Press, 2015. (further: Hunter), 96, 112, 166 – 167, 173; World statesmen, Tanzania.

[18] Hunter, 112, 166 – 167, 173; World statesmen, Tanzania.

[19] Isaria N. Kimambo, A political history of the Pare of Tanzania, c1500-1900, East African Pub. House, 1969, 54, 109, 134; World statesmen, Tanzania; Bethwell A. Ogot, Africa from the Sixteenth to the Eighteenth Century, General History of Africa, V, 1999. (further: Ogot), 414.

[20] Ethnographic Survey of Africa, Volume 2, Issue 12, International African institute, 1967. (further: Ethnographic Survey, Volume 2), 93, 98; World statesmen, Kenya; Ernst Dammann, Beiträge aus arabischen quellen zur kenntnis des negerischen Afrika, Druck von H.H. Nölke g.m.b.h, 1929. (further: Dammann), 14.

[21] Ethnographic Survey, Volume 2, 93, 98; World statesmen, Tanzania; Dammann, 14.

[22] Corona, The Journal of His Majesty’s Colonial Service, Volume 9, H.M. Stationery Office, 1957, 113; World statesmen, Tanzania.

[23] Mathius E. Mnyampala, Gregory Maddox, The Gogo, History, Customs, and Traditions, 1995, 18 – 19, 51 – 52, 58, 110; World statesmen, Tanzania; Michael Longford, The Flags Changed at Midnight, 2001, 226, 228, 242.

[24] Annual Conference, Proceedings – University of East Africa. Social Science Council, Volume 1, University of East Africa, Social Science Council, 1969, 196, 201; World statesmen, Tanzania.

[25] The Geographical Journal, Volume 66, Royal Geographical Society, 1925. (further: The Geographical Journal), 415, 417, 420; World statesmen, Tanzania.

[26] Tanzania Notes…, 18; Knight, 39; African Studies Bulletin, 268.

[27] Knight, 39; African Studies Bulletin, 268.

[28] Isaria N. Kimambo, Gregory H. Maddox, Salvatory S. Nyanto, A New History of Tanzania, Dar es Salaam 2017, 66 – 67; World statesmen, Tanzania.

[29] Rene Lemarchand, Burundi, Ethnic Conflict and Genocide, Woodrow Wilson Center Press and Cambridge University Press, 1996. (further: Lemarchand), 36; World statesmen, Burundi (http://www.worldstatesmen.org/Burundi.html)

[30] Knight, 39; Tanzania Notes…, 18; World statesmen, Tanzania; African Studies Bulletin, 268.

[31] Ethnographic Survey 14 – 15, 21; World statesmen, Tanzania.

[32] Ethnographic Survey 14 – 15, 21.

[33] Farsy, 33; World statesmen, Zanzibar.

[34] Philip Briggs, Kim Wildman, Tanzania, With Zanzibar, Pemba and Mafia, sixth edition, August 2009. (further: Briggs, Wildman), 8, 446; World statesmen, Tanzania.

[35] Briggs, Wildman, 8, 446.

[36] Diedrich Westermann, Edwin William Smith, Cyril Daryll Forde, Africa, Oxford University Press, 1986, 413; World statesmen, Kenya.

[37] Ogot, 102; World statesmen, South Sudan ( http://www.worldstatesmen.org/South_Sudan.html ); https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reth_(disambiguation).

[38] Middleton, Campbell, 31 – 32, 45; World statesmen, Tanzania.

[39] Journal of the Geographical Association of Tanzania, Issues 9 – 13, Geographical Association of Tanzania, 1973, 44; World statesmen, Tanzania.

[40] The Geographical Journal, 420.

[41] C.H. Stigland, The Land of Zinj, Being an Account of British East Africa, its Ancient History and Present Inhabitants, 1966. (further: Stigland), 35, 38, 51; World statesmen, Kenya.

[42] Stigland, 102; World statesmen, Tanzania; World statesmen, Zanzibar.

[43] Lemarchand, 38, 40; World statesmen, Burundi.

[44] Briggs, Wildman, 563; World statesmen, Tanzania.

[45] Aleksandar Bačko, Sultanate of Sulu – Notes from the past and present times, Belgrade 2015, 140; Juan Eduardo Campo, Encyclopedia of Islam, New York 2009, 643; Škaljić, 574; en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sultan.

[46] Owen R. Lunt, Proceedings, Water Resources Center’s Agricultural Water Quality Research Conference, University of California Conference Center, Lake Arrowhead, California, August 12 – 14, 1963, 279; World statesmen, Tanzania.

[47] Willis, Public…, 88.

[48] Willis, Public…, 87 – 88.

[49] Diedrich Westermann, Edwin William Smith, Cyril Daryll Forde, Africa, Volume 34, Oxford University Press, 1964, 340; Willis, Public…, 88.

[50] Ethnographic Survey 14 – 15, 21.

[51] Willis, A State…, 160; Ethnographic Survey 14 – 15, 21.

[52] Ethnographic Survey 14 – 15, 21.

[53] M. Reda Bhacker, Trade and Empire in Muscat and Zanzibar, The Roots of British Domination, London – New York 2003, 79, 105, 114; World statesmen, Kenya.

[54] Škaljić, 638; Albert Hourani, A History of the Arab Peoples, The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, Cambridge Massachusetts 2002, 505.

[55] Ogot, 414.

[56] African Studies Bulletin, 268; Tanzania Notes…, 11; Knight, 39.

NOTES ABOUT CERTAIN EAST AFRICAN TRADITIONAL TITLES

СТАРЕ БЕОГРАДСКЕ ПОРОДИЦЕ – ОЗЕРОВИЋИ

Аутор:

Александар Бачко

 

Аврам Озеровић рођен је у Београду, 1848. године. Отац му се звао Моша Озеровић, а мајка Пасква, рођена Давичо. Био је трговац, индустријалац и привредник. Обављао је дужност председника Сефардске општине у Београду и народног посланика. Умро је у Врњачкој Бањи 1916, у 68. години живота.[1]

Аврам М. Озеровић носилац је Ордена Таковског крста IV степена. Поред тога, Озеровић је био одликован Орденом Светог Саве III и IV реда, као и аустро-угарским Орденом Гвоздене круне.[2]

Након Аврамове смрти, међу ожалошћенима се помињу: супруга Елиза, ћерке Пакита (супруга др. С. Алкалаја), Мерцедес, Хортензија и Олга, син Манфред Озеровић кандидат права, Аврамове сестре Регина Сусин, Јелена Азриел, Јеанета Фархи и Шарлота Нахман, покојникова браћа Михајло и Јосиф, зетови Саломон Фархи, Аврам Нахман и др. Саломон Ј. Алкалај (лекар – гинеколог и резервни санитетски мајор), шураци Јосиф, Морис и Жак Коен (живео је у Букурешту), као и унук Јосиф С. Алкалај.[3]

Озер се, у документима из 19. века, у Београду јавља и као лично име и као презиме. Тако се у попису београдске Јеврејске општине („Обштество Јеврејско“), који датира из 1840. године, помиње домаћинство, на чијем челу је стајао Аврам Озер. Са њим су живели његови синови Озер и Јосиф, који су били порески обвезници. Домаћин је био ослобођен пореза, зато што је био „отац са два сина“ (која плаћају порез). Ово домаћинство било је пописано под редним бројем 400.[4]

Накман Озер био је 1840. године на челу јеврејског домаћинства у Београду, у ком су живели његови синови Озер и Мусе. Накман је био стар и није плаћао порез, док су његови синови били порески обвезници. Домаћинство им је било пописано под редним бројем 428.[5]

Лично име Озер забележено је 1840. године још код једног члана београдске Јеврејске општине. У питању је био Озер, који је живео у домаћинству број 403, на чијем челу је стајао Самуил Аврам Русо. Са њима је живео и трећи брат, Моша. Сва тројица су била порески обвезници.[6]

 

[1] Београдске новине, број 46, година II, Београд 30. март 1916. (у даљем тексту: Београдске новине 30. март 1916), 4; Знаменити Јевреји Србије, Биографски лексикон, Београд 2011. (у даљем тексту: Знаменити…), 169.

[2] Београдске новине 30. март 1916, 4; Знаменити…, 169.

[3] Београдске новине 30. март 1916, 4.

[4] Архив Србије, Министарство финансија, Пописне књиге становништва (1840 – 1863), Варош Београд, год. 1840, инвентарни број 132 (у даљем тексту: Београд 1840), 20.

[5] Београд 1840, 21.

[6] Београд 1840, 20.

СТАРЕ БЕОГРАДСКЕ ПОРОДИЦЕ – ОЗЕРОВИЋИ

Белешке о појединим породицама цинцарског порекла

Александар Бачко је објавио своју нову књигу, “Белешке о појединим породицама цинцарског порекла“. Ова монографија је публикована у електронском издању.

Уредник монографије је госпођа Љиљана Буза из Српско – цинцарског друштва „Луњина“ из Београда.

Књига “Белешке о појединим породицама цинцарског порекла “ има 141 страну.

Ова књига се може бесплатно преузети (у PDF формату), путем следећег линка:

Cincari – knjiga

 

Cincari - korice

Белешке о појединим породицама цинцарског порекла

Notes about certain families of Aromanian origin

Aleksandar Bačko has published his new e-book, “Notes about certain families of Aromanian origin“.

Editor of this book is Ms. Ljiljana Buza from The Serbian-Aromanian association “Lunjina”.

“Notes about certain families of Aromanian origin“ has 141 pages.

This book can be downloaded free (in PDF format), following this link:

Cincari – knjiga

 

Cincari - korice

Notes about certain families of Aromanian origin

Aleksandar Bačko – review of twenty years of research work

Igor Mojsilović has published his new e-book, „Aleksandar Bačko – review of twenty years of research work“.

Editor of this book is Miodrag Rođenkov.

Book „Aleksandar Bačko – review of twenty years of research work“ has 108 pages.

The e-book can be downloaded free (in PDF format), following this link:

Aleksandar Backo – osvrt…

Aleksandar Backo - korice

 

Aleksandar Bačko – review of twenty years of research work

Александар Бачко – осврт на двадесет година истраживачког рада

Игор Мојсиловић је у електронској форми објавио биографску књигу „Александар Бачко – осврт на двадесет година истраживачког рада“.

Монографија је обима 108 страна.

Уредник је Миодраг Рођенков.

Монографију „ Александар Бачко – осврт на двадесет година истраживачког рада “ можете бесплатно преузети у PDF формату, путем следећег линка:

Aleksandar Backo – osvrt…

 

Aleksandar Backo - korice

 

Александар Бачко – осврт на двадесет година истраживачког рада

Titles of Ugandan traditional rulers, royalty, chiefs, nobility and chivalry

Aleksandar Bačko has published his new book, “ Titles of Ugandan traditional rulers, royalty, chiefs, nobility and chivalry“.

This book is dedicated to His Majesty Rukirabasaija Agutamba Solomon Gafabusa Iguru I Omukama (King) of The Kingdom of Bunyoro-Kitara, Ruler of Hoima, Masindi, Kibaale, Buliisa, Kiryandongo, Kagadi and Kakumiro, etc. etc. etc.

Editor of this book is Reverend Father Deacon Hadži Nenad M. Jovanović.

“ Titles of Ugandan traditional rulers, royalty, chiefs, nobility and chivalry“ has 104 pages.

This book can be downloaded free (in PDF format), following this link:

titles-of-ugandan-traditional-rulers

 

titles-of-ugandan

 

 

 

Titles of Ugandan traditional rulers, royalty, chiefs, nobility and chivalry

ABOUT TITLES OF UGANDAN TRADITIONAL RULERS, ROYALTY, CHIEFS, NOBILITY AND CHIVALRY

Dedicated to His Majesty Rukirabasaija Agutamba Solomon Gafabusa Iguru I by The Grace of God, Omukama of The Kingdom of Bunyoro-Kitara, Ruler of Hoima, Masindi, Kibaale, Buliisa, Kiryandongo, Kagadi and Kakumiro, The Grandson of Kabalega, The Healer, The Orphan Protector, The Hater of Rebellion, The Lion of Bunyoro, The Hero of Bunyoro, The Hero of Kabalega, etc. etc. etc. – 49th Omukama of The Kingdom of Bunyoro-Kitara, 27th Omukama in The Babiito Dynasty – The Sovereign Head and Grand Master of The Royal Order of Omujwaara Kondo and The Royal Order of Engabu, The Sovereign Head, Grand Master and Protector of The Most Honourable Order of Omukama Chwa II Kabalega, The Patron, Protector and Granter of The Chivalrous and Religious Order of the Crown of Thorns, Patron, Protector and Granter of The Sovereign, Knightly and Noble Order of The Lion and Black Cross etc. etc. etc.

Contemporary Uganda is Republic in East Africa, in the area of African Great Lakes. However, within Uganda are several traditional constituent Monarchies, with status regulated in Constitution of this Republic. These Monarchies are: Bunyoro – Kitara, Buganda, Toro, Busoga and Rwenzururu.

This list of titles of Ugandan traditional rulers, royalty, chiefs, nobility and chivalry is certanly uncompleted. However, it represents modest contribution concerning question of traditional titles of area of nowdays Republic of Uganda, and we believe, that it will be useful in some further reasearch.

* * *

Ababiito – See: Omubiito.

Abagomborozi – Traditional title of the Sub-County Chiefs. This title was used in Bunyoro-Kitara Kingdom (Uganda) in the past, and it is still used today. This is also a title of second–level Representatives of Bunyoro-Kitara Kingdom in other countries, in charge of several provinces/departments. Abagomborozi is plural of this title, and Omugomborozi is singular. This title is mentioned in Constitution of Republic of Uganda, writen in 1966. Higher title is County Chief (Abamasaza), and lower is Parish Chief (Abemiruka). Abagomborozi is appointed by Omukama (King) of Bunyoro-Kitara. See also: Chief.1

Abajwaara Kondo – See: Royal Order of Omujwaara Kondo.

Abakama – See: Omukama.

Abakungu – See: Royal Order of Engabu.

Abakyala – Style of principal consorts of the Kabaka (King) of Buganda Kingdom. Abakyala means Lady.2

Abalangira – This is title of male members of the royal clan in Kingdom of Buganda.3

Abamasaza – Traditional title of the County Chiefs. It is used in Bunyoro-Kitara Kingdom (Uganda). Abamasaza is appointed by Omukama (King) of Bunyoro-Kitara. It is the highest Chief title in this Kingdom. This is also a title of first–level Representatives of Bunyoro-Kitara Kingdom in other countries, in charge of whole country. Lower is title of Sub-County Chief (Abagomborozi). See also description of the term Chief.4

Abambejja – This is title of female member of the royal clan in Kingdom of Buganda.5

Abasebbeeyi – As mentioned, principals consorts of Kabaka (King) of Kingdom of Buganda are styled Abakyala. Other of his wives, if of noble birth, are styled Abasebbeeyi.6

 Abataka – Title of clan Chiefs in Kingdom of Buganda is Abataka, or Bataka. In the past, Abataka had a lot of political influence but after 1750, the Kabaka (King) assumed a position of political significance far superior to that of the Abataka (Bataka). See also: Bataka.7

Abatongole – This is the title of Sub-Parish Chiefs, used in Bunyoro-Kitara Kingdom (Uganda). Higher title is Parish Chief (Abemiruka), and lower is Village Chief (Bakuru B’emigongo). This is also a title of fourth–level Representatives of Bunyoro-Kitara Kingdom in other countries, in charge of 1 province/department. Abatongole is plural of this title, and Omutongole is singular. Abatongole is appointed by Omukama (King) of Bunyoro-Kitara. In Kingdom of Buganda, Abatongole is title of the Village Chief. See also: Chief; Order of the Shield and Spears.8

Abemiruka – Traditional title of Parish Chiefs in Bunyoro-Kitara Kingdom (Uganda). Superior title is Sub-County Chief (Abagomborozi), and minor is Sub-Parish Chief (Abatongole). This is also a title of third–level Representatives of Bunyoro-Kitara Kingdom in other countries, in charge of 2 or 3 provinces/departments. Abemiruka is appointed by Omukama (King) of Bunyoro-Kitara. See also: Chief.9

Adhola – This is elective title of the traditional ruler of Padhola in Republic of Uganda. Since 7. August 1999, Adhola (traditional ruler) of Padhola is Moses Stephen Owor.10

Agutamba – See: Healer.

Azzu – This is elective title of the traditional rulers of Kebu Yuu in Republic of Uganda. Since 14. June 2008, Azzu of Kebu Yuu is Ephraim Kebbi of the House of Yuu.11

Bakuru B’emigongo – This is the title of the Village Chiefs in Bunyoro-Kitara Kingdom (Uganda). It is the lowest level of Chiefs in this Kingdom. Above it is Sub-Parish Chief (Abatongole). It is also a title of fifth–level Representatives of Bunyoro-Kitara Kingdom in other countries, in charge of 1 Village/City. See also description of term Chief.12

Bataka – This is title of the chief of a clan. It is used in the Kingdom of Buganda. See also: Abataka.13

Batebe – In Kingdom of Toro it is the title of “Princess Royal, usually a full sister of the Mukama (Omukama, King), who enjoys the status of first lady of the kingdom during her brother’s reign”.14

By The Grace of God – Formula, part of full styles of some African and non-African rulers. For instance, it is part of full title of Omukama (King) of Bunyoro-Kitara Kingdom, H.M. Rukirabasaija Agutamba Solomon Gafabusa Iguru I of Babiito Dynasty. See: Omukama.15

Chief – This is one of the most frequent titles in Africa, as well as other Continents. In Bunyoro – Kitara Kingdom there are several levels of Chief titles: County Chief (Abamasaza), Sub-County Chief (Abagomborozi), Parish Chief (Abemiruka), Sub-Parish Chief (Abatongole) and Village Chief (Bakuru B’emigongo). See also: Abamasaza, Abagomborozi, Abemiruka, Abatongole, Bakuru B’emigongo, and other titles.16

Chivalrous and Religious Order of the Crown of Thorns – By Royal decision of H.M. Solomon Iguru I, Omukama (King) of Bunyoro-Kitara, in 2012. are rewritten “the whole legal chapters and maintain of the Orders Order of the Crown of Thorns and Order of the Lion and the Black Cross under the Ecclesiastical jurisdiction and Patronage of The Apostolic Episcopal Church and the Royal Patronage of His Majesty Rukirabasaija Agutamba Solomon Gafabusa Iguru I; with H.M. Omukama Chwa II. Kabalega name incorporate and the name of His Majesty Rukirabasaija Agutamba Solomon Gafabusa Iguru I”. See also: Omukama; Patron, Protector and Granter of The Chivalrous and Religious Order of the Crown of Thorns.17

Commander – See: Most Honourable Order of Omukama Chwa II Kabalega; Order of the Lion, Crown and Shield; Order of the Shield and Spears.

Coronet wearer – See: Royal Order of Omujwaara Kondo.

County Chiefs – See: Abamasaza.

Crown Dame – See: Royal Order of Omujwaara Kondo.

Crown Knight – See: Royal Order of Omujwaara Kondo.

Crown Prince – Similar to the of most other monarchies, title of Crown Prince is used in some of Ugandan monarchies, as title of the successor of the Royal throne. In Bunyoro-Kitara Kingdom, Crown Prince is H.R.H. Crown Prince David Rukidi Mpuga OOKB, OEBKK, GCCK, son of H.M. Omukama (King) Solomon Iguru I.18

Ekitule Kinobere Abeemi – See: Hater of Rebelion.

Elder – This is title (in English language) of various positions of authority. It was used in many countries, in history, as well as today. In Iteso (Teso) in Uganda, Elders are electing traditional ruler, Emorimor.19

Emanzi Ya Bunyoro – See: Hero of Bunyoro.

Emanzi Ya Kabalega – See: The Hero of Kabalega.

Emanziya Karuzika – Part of older, full royal title of Omukama (King) of Bunyoro-Kitara Kingdom. Emanziya Karuzika means: „the hero of the palace“. This title is not used anymore as part of full official title of Omukama of Bunyoro-Kitara.20

Emorimor – This is elective title of the traditional rulers of Iteso (Teso), located in Republic of Uganda. Term “Emorimor” (Emorimori) literally means “Uniter” or “Head of the Clan”. It was duty of Emorimor to keep the Clan and Sub-Clans united. He was elected by Elders of Iteso. Since 4. May 2000, Emorimor of Iteso is Augustine Osuban.21

Emorimori – See: Emorimor.

Engazi – Title of Prime Ministers of Kingdom of Ankole was Enganzi. This title is mentioned during second half of 19th and 20th century.22

Entale Yabunyoro – See: Lion of Bunyoro.

Gabula – Hereditary title of the traditional rulers of Bugabula in Uganda (one of the Busoga confederates). Since 11 February 1995, Gabula of Bugabula is William Nadiope IV of the House of Kitimbo.23

Grand Collar – See: Most Honourable Order of Omukama Chwa II Kabalega.

Grand Cross – See: Most Honourable Order of Omukama Chwa II Kabalega.

Grand Cross – Special Class – See: Most Honourable Order of Omukama Chwa II Kabalega; Order of the Lion, Crown and Shield.

Grand Master – See: Omukama; Sovereign Head, Grand Master and Protector of The Most Honourable Order of Omukama Chwa II Kabalega.

Grand Officer – See: Most Honourable Order of Omukama Chwa II Kabalega.

Grandson of Kabalega – “The Grandson of Kabalega” (Mwijukuru Wakabalega) is part of the full royal title of Omukama (King) of Bunyoro-Kitara Kingdom, H.M. Rukirabasaija Agutamba Solomon Gafabusa Iguru I of Babiito Dynasty.24

This title emphasizes close family relationship between H.M. Omukama Solomon Iguru I and His Grandfather, H.M. Omukama Chwa II Kabalega (18 June 1853 – 6 April 1923), Ruler of Bunyoro-Kitara Kingdom between 1870. and 1899. When he was crowned king, he set out to develop economy of his Kingdom. When the British sought to colonize Bunyoro-Kitara Kingdom, he firmly resisted. On 1. January 1894 the British declared war on his Kingdom. For a period of five years Kabalega was able to fend off the British, who had help from some African countries, including Somalia, Nubia, and others. On 9 April 1899, Kabalega was shot and wounded by the British, who captured him. Kabalega was exiled to the Seychelles for 24 years. In 1923, Kabalega was given permission to return to Bunyoro-Kitara, but died in Jinja (in Uganda) on 6. April 1923, shortly before reaching the borders of the Kingdom. On 8. June 2009 Kabalega was declared a national hero of Uganda. After him is also named Most Honourable Order of Omukama Chwa II Kabalega. See also: Omukama, Most Honourable Order of Omukama Chwa II Kabalega.25

Granter – See: Omukama; Patron, Protector and Granter of The Chivalrous and Religious Order of the Crown of Thorns; Patron, Protector and Granter of The Sovereign, Knightly and Noble Order of The Lion and Black Cross.

Hater of Rebellion – “The Hater of Rebellion” (Ekitule Kinobere Abeemi) is part of the official full title of Omukama H.M. Rukirabasaija Agutamba Solomon Gafabusa Iguru I of of Bunyoro-Kitara Kingdom. “The Hater of Rebellion” was also used as part of full royal title of H.M. Omukama Chwa II Kabalega (in form: “Kitule Kinobere Abeemi”). See: Omukama.26

Head – See: Omukama; Sovereign Head of The Royal Order of Omujwaara Kondo and The Royal Order of Engabu; Sovereign Head, Grand Master and Protector of The Most Honourable Order of Omukama Chwa II Kabalega.

Healer – “The Healer” (Agutamba) is part of the full official title of Omukama of Bunyoro-Kitara Kingdom, H.M. Rukirabasaija Agutamba Solomon Gafabusa Iguru I of Babiito Dynasty. Agutamba (from: „omubazi ogutamba bunaku“) in narrower sence means: „the medicine that cures, or wards off, poverty“. See also: Omukama.27

Hero of Bunyoro – “The Hero of Bunyoro” (Emanzi Ya Bunyoro) is part of the full title of King (Omukama) of Bunyoro-Kitara Kingdom, H.M. Rukirabasaija Agutamba Solomon Gafabusa Iguru I of Babiito Dynasty. See also: Omukama.28

Hero of Kabalega – “The Hero of Kabalega” (Emanzi Ya Kabalega) is part of the full official title of Omukama (King) of Bunyoro-Kitara Kingdom, H.M. Rukirabasaija Agutamba Solomon Gafabusa Iguru I of Babiito Dynasty. Tis title is after H.M. Omukama Chwa II Kabalega, national hero of Uganda, grandfather of H.M. Solomon Iguru I. See also: Omukama, Grandson of Kabalega, Most Honourable Order of Omukama Chwa II Kabalega.29

Inhebantu – Inhebantu of Busoga is the title given to the queen consort to the ruler of the Kingdom of Busoga (Kyabazinga of Busoga). The most recent Inhebantu was Alice Muloki, who died on November 6, 2005.30

Inzu – This is the title of the Paramount Chief of Masaaba in Republic of Uganda. See also: Paramount Chief.31

Isebantu Kyabazinga – See: Kyabazinga.

Jadipu – This is title of Prime Minister in Alur (Union of Alur Chiefdoms) in Republic of Uganda.32

Jago – Title of leaders with power over several clans in Acholi. It is lesser title then Rwot. “Dominant clan leaders forged clan alliances to become the Jago over several neighbouring clans. A militarily proficient Jago would be recognised as Rwot by neighbouring Jagi who acknowleged his leadership”.33

Kabaka – Hereditary title of the traditional ruler of Kingdom of Buganda, constituent monarchy in Republic of Uganda. Since 24. July 1993, Kabaka of Buganda is Ronald Muwenda Mutebi II of the House of Abalasangeye.34

Kabaka is the title translated as a King, in the Kingdom of Buganda. According to traditions of people of this Kingdom, they are ruled by two Kings, one spiritual and the other material. The spiritual (supernatural) king is represented by the Royal Drums. These are regalia called Mujaguzo. Royal drums (Mujaguzo) “like any other king”, has own palace, officials, servants, and palace guards. The material, human prince has to perform special cultural rites on the Royal Drums, before he can be declared Kabaka (King) of the Kingdom of Buganda. Upon the birth of a royal prince or princess, the Royal Drums are sounded by drummers specially selected from a specified clan as a means of informing the subjects of the kingdom of the birth of new member of the royal family. The same Royal Drums are sounded upon the death of a reigning king to officially announce the death of the material king.35

In the Kingdom of Buganda is no classic concept of the Crown Prince. All royal princes are treated equaly in life time of Kabaka. During the period of a reigning king, a special council has the mandate to study the behavior and characteristics of the young princes. The reigning king, informed by the recommendation of the special council, selects one prince to be his successor. In a secret ceremony, the selected prince is given a special piece of bark cloth by the head of the special verification council. The name of the future king is kept secret by the special council until the death of the reigning king. When all the princes and princesses are called to view the body of the late king lying in state, the selected prince lays the special piece of bark cloth over the body of the late king, revealing himself as the successor to the throne. The first born prince, by tradition called Kiweewa, is not allowed to become king. This was carefully planned to protect him against any attempted assassinations in a bid to fight for the crown. Instead he is given special roles to play in the matters of the royal family and kingdom.36

Kabaka Oweebweru – See: Katikiro.

Kaggo – This is title of County Chief of Kyaddondo County, in Kingdom of Buganda.37

Kalyota – Title of the “official sister” of Omukama (King) of Bunyoro-Kitara Kingdom. Chosen half-sister of Omukama (by another mother), traditionally, bears this title.38

Kamuswaga – Title of the hereditary traditional rulers of Kooki in Kingdom of Buganda (Republic of Uganda), after 1896. (before that, title Omukama was used). Since 15. May 2004, Kamuswaga of Kooki is Apollo Sansa Kabumbuli II. He is member of branch of Babiito Dynasty. This Dynasty is also ruling House of Bunyoro-Kitara Kingdom and Toro.39

The Kingdom of Kooki is a traditional chiefdom in the Rakai District of Uganda. It was first mentioned in writen sources in 1884. It was incorporated into the Kingdom of Buganda in 1896, but its royal line continues.40

Kangawo – This is the title of the county chief of Bulemezi (Kingdom of Buganda).41

Kasaja – This is title of the traditional ruler of Buyodi (one of the Busoga – Usoga confederates).42

Kasorobahiga – Part of older, full royal title of Omukama (King) of Bunyoro-Kitara Kingdom. Emanziya Karuzika means: „hunted“, which means „hunted by other rulers, who are jealous of His power and preeminence“. This title is not used anymore as part of full official title of Omukama of Bunyoro-Kitara.43

Kasujju – County of Busujju (Kingdom of Buganda) headed by the County Chief titled Kasujju.44

Katanbala – County of Butambala in Buganda Kingdom is headed by the Katambala (County Chief).45

Katikiro – Katikiro or Kattikiro is title of Prime Minister of Bunyoro – Kitara Kingdom. Also, this title was used for Prime Ministers of Kingdom of Buganda and Kingdom of Toro until 1960s (after that time, title is Omuhikirwa). Prime Minister is also traditionally called “Kabaka Oweebweru” in Buganda Kingdom.46

Kattikiro – See: Katikiro.

 

 

Kayanga – This is title of the traditional ruler of Igombe (one of the Busoga – Usoga confederates).47

Kayima – County Chief title of head of Mawokota County (Kingdom of Buganda).48

Kimbugwe – Buluuli County in Kingdom of Buganda is headed by the County Chief with title Kimbugwe.49

King – Well known historical and contemporary supreme ruler title in English language. It is used as synonym for some traditional ruler titles in Uganda – Omukama, Kabaka and others. See: Omukama; Kabaka.50

Kisiki – This is hereditary title of the traditional rulers of Busiki in Republic of Uganda (one of the Busoga confederates). In older period, title of the ruler of Busiki was Lamoge. Current Kisiki of Busiki, since 11. February 1995, is Yekosofato Kawanguzi of the House of Igaga. See also: Lamoge.51

Kitunzi – County of Ggomba in Kingdom of Buganda is headed by the County Chief with title Kitunzi.52

Kiweewa – This is title of first born royal prince, eldest son of Kabaka in the Kingdom of Buganda. Traditionaly, Kiweewa “is not allowed to become king”, but “he is given special roles to play in the matters of the royal family and kingdom”. See also: Kabaka.53

Knight – See: Most Honourable Order of Omukama Chwa II Kabalega.

Knightly and Noble Order of The Lion and Black Cross – See: Patron, Protector and Granter of The Sovereign, Knightly and Noble Order of The Lion and Black Cross.

Kweba – County of Ssese (Buganda kingdom) is headed by the County Chief with title Kweba.54

Kyabazinga – Kyabazinga of Busoga or Isebantu Kyabazinga is title is the title given to the ruler of the Kingdom (Confederation) of Busoga in Uganda. Isebantu means „father of the people“. This name was a symbol of unity derived from the expression and recognition by the people of Busoga that their leader was the „father of all people who brings all of them together“, and who also serves as their cultural leader. The former Kyabazinga of Busoga was Henry Wako Muloki, who was born in 1921. and died on 1. September 2008.55

Kyabazinga of Busoga was abolished in 1966 when Milton Obote disbanded all traditional institutions within the country, including the Kingdom of Busoga and the title of Kyabazinga. The Kyabazinga was restored with the restoration of traditional institutions in the end of 20th century, and the second coronation of Henry Wako Muloki on February 11, 1995.56

Kyabazinga of Busoga is elective title. Kyabazinga is chosen from just five of the eleven Busoga royal traditional chiefs. Only these five may elect the next Kyabazinga, who is from their own ranks. The Kyabazinga holds the title for a certain period of time before a new title holder in chosen by the chiefs. There have recently been calls by Basoga elders to allow that all eleven royal hereditary chiefs be permitted to elect the next Kyabazinga, instead of just the traditional five chiefs. The demands for this change came during the selection process for a successor to the late Henry Wako Muloki. See also: Ruler.57

Lamoge – This was former title of ruler of Busiki. Later, rulers of Busiki were titled Kisiki. See also: Kisiki.58

Lion of Bunyoro – “The Lion of Bunyoro” (Entale Yabunyoro) is part of the full royal title of Omukama (King) of Bunyoro-Kitara Kingdom, H.M. Rukirabasaija Agutamba Solomon Gafabusa Iguru I of Babiito Dynasty. See: Omukama.59

Luba – This is hereditary title of the traditional rulers of Bunya (Bunha) in Uganda. Bunya is one of the Busoga confederates. Current ruler, Luba of Bunya, since 11. February 1995, is Juma Munulo II .60

Lubuga – Title of royal “mother substitute” in Kingdom of Buganda, second in rank to the Naalinya.61

Lumaama – Kabula is County in Kingdom of Buganda. It is headed by the County Chief with title Lumaama.62

Luweekula – County of Buweekula (Buganda Kingdom) is headed by the County Chief with title Luweekula.63

Majesty – See: King; Omukama; Omugo.

Master of Ceremonies – See: Omusana.

Mbuubi – Buvuma is County in Kingdom of Buganda. It is headed by the County Chief with title Mbuubi.64

Member – See: Order of the Lion, Crown and Shield; Order of the Shield and Spears.

Menya – Hereditary title of the traditional rulers of Bugweri (Bugweri Bufutulu) in Uganda. Bugweri is one of the Busoga confederates. Since 11 February 1995 Menya of Bugweri is Frederick Kakaire II  of the House of Menyha.65

Most Honourable – See: Royal Order of Omujwaara Kondo; Royal Order of Engabu.

Most Honourable Order of Omukama Chwa II Kabalega – The Order of Omukama Chwa II Kabalega is also known as The Most Honourable Order of Duty and Inflexibility of Omukama Chwa II Kabalega and Saint Thomas More. It is the third highest royal order of merit of the Kingdom of Bunyoro–Kitara. It is awarded by Omukama of Bunyoro-Kitara.66

The Order is established in 2010. It is awarded to persons who promote charity and humanity, help to relief from sickness, distress, suffering or danger. Also, individuals who support the Bunyoro Kitara Kingdom are awarded. Unofficial motto of this Order is: For the King, For the People, For Justice (in Nyoro language: Habwomukama, Habwabantu, Habowbwinganisa, and in Latin: Pro Rex, Pro Humanitas, Pro Iustitia).67

The Order consists of this grades (with post nominals): Companion (CK), Knight (KCK), Officer (OCK), Commander (CCK), Grand Officer (GOCK), Grand Cross (GCCK), Grand Cross – Special Class (GCCK) and Grand Collar (GCCKC). The class of Grand Collar is only available for reigning royalties, heads of state and the Grand Master.68

This Order may be inherited by the eldest children of the same sex as the original recipient. The order is named after Omukama Chwa II Kabalega, a former king (Omukama) of the Bunyoro-Kitara Kingdom and a national hero of Uganda. As mentioned, Order is also named after Saint Thomas More, who is a great symbol of duty and inflexibility against injustice. See also: Sovereign Head, Grand Master and Protector of The Most Honourable Order of Omukama Chwa II Kabalega. See also: Grandson of Kabalega, Hero of Kabalega.69

Mugabe – See: Omugabe.

Mugerere – This is title of County Chief of Bugerere County in Kingdom of Buganda.70

Mukama – See: Omukama.

Mukungu – By Royal decision of H.M. Solomon Iguru I, Omukama (King) of Kingdom of Bunyoro-Kitara in 2012. title of Mukungu (Chieftainship of the Ancient Abbey-Principality of San Luigi in Fezzan) is renewed. The holder of the title shall be designated by the title of Mukungu, worn after surname.71

The title of Mukungu is first granted by H.M. Omukama Chwa II. Kabalega to Prince-Abbot Dom Jose Mendoza of the Abbey-Principality of San Luigi (Fezzan), in 1889.72

Mukwenda – Title of County Chief of Ssingo County in Kingdom of Buganda is Mukwenda.73

Mulangira – Title of a descendant of the Royal clan (noble) in Kingdom of Buganda.74

Muteesa – Mawogola County in Kingdom of Buganda is headed by the County Chief with title Muteesa.75

Mutuba Muto – This was title of the County Chief of Ibanda, after 1902. In this year Ibanda becomes part of kingdom of Ankole.76

Muzaaya – This was title of the ruler of Buzaaya. Title existed until 1906, when Buzaaya was “amalgamated by British authorities”.77

Mwebingwa – See: Orphan Protector.

Mwebingwe – See: Orphan Protector.

Mwegombwa – Part of older, full royal title of Omukama (King) of Bunyoro-Kitara Kingdom. Mwegombwa means: „He who is loved and longed for“. This title is not used anymore as part of full official title of Omukama of Bunyoro-Kitara.78

Mwijukuru Wakabalega – See: Grandson of Kabalega.

Naalinya – Title of eldest sister of the Kabaka, the Princess Royal, in Kingdom of Buganda is Naalinya (Nnalinnya).79

Namasole – This is title of the mother of Omukama (King), as well as mother of Kabaka. Title Namasole is used in Kingdom of Toro and Kingdom of Buganda (Republic of Uganda).80

Nanyumba – This is hereditary title of the traditional rulers of Bunyole (Bunyuli) in Uganda. Bunyole is one of the Busoga confederates. Current Nanyumba of Bunyole, since 11 February 1995, is John Ntale Nahnumba.81

Ngobi – Hereditary title of the traditional rulers of Kigulu in Uganda (one of the Busoga confederates). Since 11. February 1995, Ngobi of Kigulu is Izimba Golologolo of the House of Ngobi.82

Nkono – Title of hereditary the traditional rulers of Bukono in Uganda (one of the Busoga confederates). Nkono of Bukono, since 11. February 1995, is Mutyaba Nkono II of the House of Nkono.83

Nkyanungi – See: Ruler.

Nnalinnya – See: Naalinya.

Noble, Nobility – See: Royal Order of Omujwaara Kondo; Mulangira.

Ntembe – This is hereditary title of the traditional ruler of Butembe in Uganda (one of the Busoga confederates). Current Ntembe of Butembe, since 11. February 1995, is Badru Waguma.84

Nyakanungi – See: Ruler.

Nyathi Rwot – This is title of local leader in Alur (Union of Alur Chiefdoms). It literally means “child of Rwoth (King)”, or “Kinglet”. Nyathi Rwot is subjugated to Rwoth Obima. See also: Rwoth Obima.85

Officer – See: Most Honourable Order of Omukama Chwa II Kabalega; Order of the Shield and Spears.

Okuma – This is title of the ruler of Buzimba, which existed during 19th century. Buzimba splited from Kigulu in 1806, and merged back in 1899. During this period, there were 14 Okuma of Buzimba.86

Okwiri – Title of the “official brother” of Omukama (King) of Bunyoro-Kitara Kingdom. Eldest son of late Omukama, traditionally, bears this title. Okwiri was formally appointed by the new Omukama, after accession.87

Omubiito – This is the title of prince in Kingdom of Toro, in Republic of Uganda. Title of Omubiito was also used for rulers of Busongora Kingdom, until 1922, when it was devided between Kingdom of Toro and Kingdom of Ankole. Form “Omubiito” is singular, and “Ababiito” is plural. 88

 Omubiitokati – Title of Princess. It is known in Kingdom of Toro (Republic of Uganda).89

Omugabe – This is hereditary title of the traditional ruler of Kingdom of Ankole (Nkore in pre-colonial times) in Republic of Uganda. Since 20. November 1993, Omugabe of Ankole is Ntare VI of the House of Bahinda. Other bearers of this title were also members of House of Bahinda. Mugabe is variation of title Omugabe.90

Kingdom of Ankole was a sovereign entity, but when it came under British supremacy in 1901, by the signing of the Ankole Agreement, Omugabe became largely a ceremonial or administrative position. Before that year, term for ruler of Ankole was Omukama, same as in Kingdom of Bunyoro-Kitara and Toro Kingdom. The term „Omugabe“ is translated in various ways, but is most commonly equated to „king“. Its literally meaning is “giver”.91

This title, as well as Kingdom of Ankole, were abolished in 1967. by Milton Obote. In was not officialy restored together with other kingdoms in Uganda in The Nkore Cultural Trust, of which King Ntare VI is the patron, is actively lobbying to restore the kingdom of Ankole.92

Omugo – Title of Bunyoro-Kitara Royalty, Omugo, is translated in English as Queen. It is the title of the wife of ruling Omukama (King) of Bunyoro-Kitara Kingdom, as well as Omukama of Toro Kingdom. Today, Omugo of Bunyoro-Kitara is H.M. Margaret Adyeri Karunga, wife of H.M. Solomon Iguru I, Omukama of Bunyoro-Kitara Kingdom.93

Omugomborozi – See: Abagomborozi.

Omuhikirwa – This is title of the Prime Ministers of Kingdom of Toro in Uganda. This title is used from 1960s. Before that time, Prime Minister of Toro was called Katikiro.94

Omujwaara Kondo – See: Royal Order of Omujwaara Kondo.

Bunyoro-Kitara Kingdom Coat of Arms

Bunyoro-Kitara Kingdom Coat of Arms (www.czipm.org)

 

Omukama – Hereditary Royal title of the Bunyoro-Kitara Kingdom (Republic of Uganda). In Nyoro and some other languages it has meaning “King”. Its translation in English is same. Etymology of this term is not completely clear, because, it literally means “supreme milkman/milkbringer”. Plural of title Omukama is Abakama. Since 24. July 1993, Omukama of Bunyoro-Kitara Kingdom is His Majesty Rukirabasaija Agutamba Solomon Gafabusa Iguru I. His Majesty is head of the Royal House of Babiito (49th Omukama of the Kingdom Bunyoro Kitara and 27th Omukama in the Babiito Dynasty). H.M. Omukama Solomon Iguru I is officially recognized and protected by the Constitution of the Republic of Uganda. By the Supreme Court of Uganda, H.M. Omukama Solomon Iguru I is specifically recognized as the rightful King of Bunyoro-Kitara. Similar to most of other reigning monarchs, the traditional kings in Republic of Uganda currently serve as „cultural figures“ or „traditional leaders“ and are barred from engaging in politics.95

Ancestors of H.M. Omukama Solomon Iguru I never renounced their rights, never abdicated the kingdom and never ceded sovereignty. They suffered exile, rather than capitulate and concede anything, they maintained their original royal status and sovereign rights. This is very significant as His Majesty is not simply a constitutional king. He is also the heir to a dynasty that has kept all its ancient rights intact.96

In Constitution of the Republic of Uganda is specified role of traditional or cultural leader. Where a traditional leader or cultural leader exists in a region the traditional or cultural leader shall be the titular head of the regional government. He also shall be the titular head of the regional assembly and shall open, address and close the sessions of the regional assembly, as well as enjoy other benefits and privileges.97

Royal Palace of Omukama of Bunyoro-Kitara Kingdom, called Karuziika Palace, is located in Hoima. As a cultural head, the King is assisted by his Principal Private Secretary, a Cabinet of 21 Ministers and a Orukurato (Parliament).98

Full royal title of His Majesty Rukirabasaija Agutamba Solomon Gafabusa Iguru I is: by The Grace of God, Omukama of The Kingdom of Bunyoro-Kitara, Ruler of Hoima, Masindi, Kibaale, Buliisa, Kiryandongo, Kagadi and Kakumiro, The Grandson of Kabalega, The Healer, The Orphan Protector, The Hater of Rebellion, The Lion of Bunyoro, The Hero of Bunyoro, The Hero of Kabalega, etc. etc. etc. – 49th Omukama of The Kingdom of Bunyoro-Kitara, 27th Omukama in The Babiito Dynasty – The Sovereign Head and Grand Master of The Royal Order of Omujwaara Kondo and The Royal Order of Engabu, The Sovereign Head, Grand Master and Protector of The Most Honourable Order of Omukama Chwa II Kabalega, The Patron, Protector and Granter of The Chivalrous and Religious Order of the Crown of Thorns, Patron, Protector and Granter of The Sovereign, Knightly and Noble Order of The Lion and Black Cross etc. etc. etc.99

H.M. Omukama Solomon Iguru I was born on 18. June 1948. King’s Empaako, traditional alternative name used by family, is Amooti. His Majesty inherited throne from his father, H.M. Sir Tito Winyi IV, Omukama of Bunyoro-Kitara. In recent years, H.M. Solomon Iguru I has significantly promoted and developed the Kingdom of Bunyoro-Kitara, such as establishing the institution of the Association of the Representatives of Bunyoro-Kitara (ARKBK).100

Every year an “Empago’ ceremony is held celebrating Omukama (King) and Kingdom of Bunyoro-Kitara. The celebration is held at the Royal Palace and all the Banyoro people (people of Kingdom of Bunyoro-Kitara) are invited to join. During this ceremony the King also beats the Royal Drums as a sign of his power and as a mean of signaling the people. The celebration contains singing, dancing, music and other activities.101

Title of Omukama is also in use in Toro, traditional Kingdom in Republic of Uganda. Other variant of this title, known in Kingdom of Toro, is Mukama. Current Omukama of Toro, since 26. August 1995, is Rukidi IV. He belongs to the Babiito Dynasty, branch of Babiito Dynasty of Bunyoro – Kitara Kingdom. He is 13th Omukama of Toro.102

In Ugandan traditional Kingdom of Ankole, title of the King was also Omukama, until 1901. After that year, King of Ankole was bearer of the title Omugabe. See also: King, Omugabe.103

Omukama was also title of the hereditary traditional rulers of Kooki in Kingdom of Buganda (Republic of Uganda), until 1896. After that year, title Kamuswaga was used for Kooki rulers. See also: King.104

Omukungu – See: Royal Order of Engabu; Order of the Shield and Spears.

Omulangira – Title of the younger sons, grandsons, and male descendants of the Kabaka of Buganda Kingdom in the male line (Prince).105

Omulerembera – Title of Prime Minister in Rwenzuru (Rwezunruru). It was part of Kingdom of Toro, until beginning of 20th century, and after that constituent Monarchy in Uganda.106

Omumbejja  – Title of the daughters, granddaughters and female descendants of the Kabaka of Buganda Kingdom in the male line (Princess).107

Omumbere – This is title of the traditional ruler of Bakonjo in Republic of Uganda.108

Omusana – Title of the Master of Ceremonies in the Kingdom of Toro (Republic of Uganda).109

Omusinga – Title of the hereditary traditional ruler of Rwenzuru in Republic of Uganda. Since 19 October 2009, Omusinga of Rwenzuru is Irema-Ngoma I of the House of Abahira. Rwenzuru (Rwezunruru) was part of Kingdom of Toro, until beginning of 20th century, and after that period, constituent Monarchy in Uganda. In some periods, this Kingdom was not recognized by Republic of Uganda.110

Omutongole – See: Abatongole; Order of the Shield and Spears.

Omwami – Title of Chief in Kingdom of Buganda. In Burundi and Rwanda this is the title of the King.111

Order – See: Royal Order of Omujwaara Kondo, Royal Order of Engabu, Most Honourable Order of Omukama Chwa II Kabalega, Royal Order of the Crown; Chivalrous and Religious Order of the Crown of Thorns.

Order of Distinction – See: Royal Order of Omujwaara Kondo.

Order of Engabu – See: Royal Order of Engabu.

Order of Omujwaara Kondo – See: Royal Order of Omujwaara Kondo.

Order of Omukama Chwa II Kabalega – See: Most Honourable Order of Omukama Chwa II Kabalega.

Order of the Coronet wearer – See: Royal Order of Omujwaara Kondo.

Order of the Crown – See: Royal Order of the Crown.

Order of the Crown of Thorns – See: Omukama; Patron, Protector and Granter of The Chivalrous and Religious Order of the Crown of Thorns; Chivalrous and Religious Order of the Crown of Thorns.

Order of The Lion and Black Cross – See: Patron, Protector and Granter of The Sovereign, Knightly and Noble Order of The Lion and Black Cross.

Order of the Lion, Crown and Shield – Order of Kingdom of Toro. It was founded by Omukama George Rukidi III in 1963. It is awarded in three classes:  Grand Cross, Commander and Member.112

Order of the Shield – See: Royal Order of Engabu.

Order of the Shield and Spears – It was founded by Kabaka (King) Daudi Chwa II of Buganda Kingdom, on 8. August 1927. This order was created to reward loyal services to the Kingdom of Buganda and bestowed on Bugandan subjects and foreign nationals alike. Awarded in three classes: Commander (CSS), Omutongole or Officer (OSS), and Omukungu or Member (MSS). The medal of the order was instituted on 26. May 1937.113

Orphan Protector – “The Orphan Protector” (Mwebingwa, Mwebingwe) is part of the full royal title of Omukama (King) of Bunyoro-Kitara Kingdom, H.M. Rukirabasaija Agutamba Solomon Gafabusa Iguru I of Babiito Dynasty. Mwebingwa also means: „He to whom people run for help and protection“, or „He to whom people run when in need“. See also: Omukama.114

Paramount Chief – Frequent title in English language of traditional rulers in various countries. This title can be both hereditary and elective. Paramount Chief is the title of ruler of Kebu Yuu in Republic of Uganda. See also: Inzu, Rwot.115

Parish Chiefs – See: Abemiruka.

Patron, Protector and Granter of The Chivalrous and Religious Order of the Crown of Thorns – This is part of the full royal title of Omukama (King) of Bunyoro-Kitara Kingdom, H.M. Rukirabasaija Agutamba Solomon Gafabusa Iguru I of Babiito Dynasty.116

By Royal decision of H.M. Solomon Iguru I, Omukama (King) of Bunyoro-Kitara, in 2012. are rewritten “the whole legal chapters and maintain of the Orders Order of the Crown of Thorns and Order of the Lion and the Black Cross under the Ecclesiastical jurisdiction and Patronage of The Apostolic Episcopal Church and the Royal Patronage of His Majesty Rukirabasaija Agutamba Solomon Gafabusa Iguru I; with H.M. Omukama Chwa II. Kabalega name incorporate and the name of His Majesty Rukirabasaija Agutamba Solomon Gafabusa Iguru I”. See also: Omukama; Chivalrous and Religious Order of the Crown of Thorns; Patron, Protector and Granter of The Sovereign, Knightly and Noble Order of The Lion and Black Cross.117

Patron, Protector and Granter of The Sovereign, Knightly and Noble Order of The Lion and Black Cross – Part of the full official title of Omukama of Bunyoro-Kitara Kingdom, H.M. Rukirabasaija Agutamba Solomon Gafabusa Iguru I. See also: Omukama; Patron, Protector and Granter of The Chivalrous and Religious Order of the Crown of Thorns.118

Pokino – County of Buddu (Buganda Kingdom) is headed by the County Chief with title Pokino.119

Prime Minister – See: Katikiro; Omuhikirwa; Omulerembera; Engazi; Jadipu.

Prince – See: Crown Prince, Omulangira.

 Princess – See: Royal Princess; Omumbejja.

Protector – See: Omukama; Orphan Protector; Sovereign Head, Grand Master and Protector of The Most Honourable Order of Omukama Chwa II Kabalega; Patron, Protector and Granter of The Chivalrous and Religious Order of the Crown of Thorns; Patron, Protector and Granter of The Sovereign, Knightly and Noble Order of The Lion and Black Cross

Royal Order of Engabu – It is a single-grade royal order, within the Kingdom of Bunyoro-Kitara. In English, the name of the Order means: Order of the Shield. It is awarded solely by the Omukama (King) of Bunyoro-Kitara. The order was established in 2010, replacing the old Royal Order of the Crown. The name change was done to make sure, that the Order of the Crown and the Order of Omujwaara Kondo (Order of the Coronet Wearer) were not confused.120

This is old order of Bunyoro-Kitara Kingdom. It is considered, that its roots are dating back roughly to the 17th century. Today, Motto of Royal Order of Engabu is: “Cum Alus Pro Alus” in Latin (in English: With Others, For Others).121

Royal Order of Engabu is junior to the Royal Order of Omujwaara Kondo, and senior to Order of Omukama Chwa II Kabalega. Order of Engabu is normally granted twice a year, once during the Empango ceremony (which most often is on June 11 each year) and the other on the birthday of the Omukama (H.M. Solomon Iguru I’s birthday is June 18).122

Today, Order is awarded for “All that makes for the spiritual and moral strengthening of mankind and Bunyoro-Kitara Kingdom in particular, and those who promote work for humanity and charity, for the relief of persons in sickness, distress, suffering or danger”. Its eligibility is for any individual, above the age of 25.123

Recipients of The Order of Engabu receive a breast star, that is 90 millimeters in diameter. This star is worn at Empango ceremonies or other appropriate formal occasions, and members of the order sit in a special place of honor during the Empango events.124

This Order is inherited by the original grantee’s eldest child of the same sex at the moment of the original grantee’s death or renunciation of the honor. For male grantees, the honor passes by patrilineal primogeniture. For female grantees, the honor passes by matrilineal primogeniture.125

There are several aspects of the award that recipients of the Order receive. First, all recipients are entitled to the style „The Most Honourable“. However, persons entitled to an existing style that supersedes “ The Most Honourable“ will retain it within the Order’s records. Second, a recipient is entitled to use the title of Omukungu (plural: Abakungu), or “Abakungu okusemera omu Engabu” (roughly: Chiefs worthy to be in Crown). This title is junior to mujwaara Kondo. Official authorization is granted for a male recipient to translate Omujwaara Kondo into „Knight“ in English and a female recipient may translate this into „Dame“. Third, the post-nominal of „OEBKK“ may be used after an honoree’s name, which stands for (O)rder of the (E)ngabu of (B)unyoro-(K)itara (K)ingdom. The original recipient of the Order may use „1st“ before the post-nominals (OEBKK) in order to show he is the first to receive the Order, his son who inherits the order may then use „2nd OEBKK“, his son may use „3rd OEBKK“ and so on.126

Persons who receive this Order are also entitled to the right to display certain heraldic privileges. By authorization of His Majesty the Omukama, all Members of the Order, who desire to have heraldry are entitled to display supporters and top their helm with a basic coronet if they desire to signify their status as Members. See also: Sovereign Head of The Royal Order of Omujwaara Kondo and The Royal Order of Engabu.127

Royal Order of Omujwaara Kondo – It is the oldest and highest royal order of the Bunyoro-Kitara Kingdom and is awarded solely by the Omukama of Bunyoro-Kitara. It is a single-grade honor, separated into two classes. Class I is limited to other royal families of the world and heads of state, while Class II is open to all persons.128

It is considered, that the first recipient of this Order was Kasaru, the interpreter of Omukama Rukidi of Bunyoro, who ruled in the late 15th century. Therefore, the Order is believed to be more than 500 years old. It was normal that recipients of the Order were awarded ownership of land and it was believed, that they obtained a special “divine power” called “mahano” with the admission into the order.129

Recipients of the Order were awarded an Ekondo (English: coronets) and other regalia, and had special seats during ceremonies of the Kingdom. Earlier, recipients were not allowed to eat “common food” like potatoes and beans. Instead, they were expected to follow a special diet, containing primarily: meat, poultry and other “finer” (rare) foods.130

When awarded the Order, recipients obtains the title of „Omujwaara Kondo“ (English: Coronet wearer) and became an Abajwaara Kondo (Name for a group of Omujawaara Kondo’s). It was also normal to award recipients with elaborate headdresses made from beard and skin of the columbus monkey.131

The Order has, compared to European standards, more characteristics of a title of nobility (The award being a title and a coronet) then of an Order of Chivalry. When the British conquered the Kingdom however, the Bunyoro Agreements of 1933. and 1955. between the Kingdom and the British Government recognized the Omukama’s power to award this ancient honor, which was then classified as an „Order of Distinction“.132

Uganda gained its independence from Britain in 1962. Omukama Sir Winyi IV continued to award this honor until 1967, when the Kingdoms in Uganda were abolished by dictator Milton Obote. The Kingdom of Bunyoro-Kitara was restored on June 11, 1993. with the enthronement of H.M. Solomon Iguru I, son of H.M. Omukama Sir Winyi IV of Bunyoro. After the enthronement, similar to the other traditional honors of Bunyoro-Kitara, the Omujwaara Kondo is once again being awarded.133

Originally, when being awarded the Order, recipients would swear an oath of loyalty to the King, and drink a bowl of milk with the King, but now the drinking of milk is optional. How the tradition of drinking milk started is not known, but it is believed to have ties with the former large herds of Ankole cattle, which were an important part of Bunyoro economy, history and culture.134

The Order was revised on March 22, 2010 by H.M. Omukama Solomon Iguru I, in an attempt to modernize it. Since then the honor has been updated to be a breast star that is 90 millimeters in diameter. This star is worn at Empango ceremonies or other appropriate formal occasions, and member of the order sits in a special place of honor during the Empango events. Traditionally the Order was only given to men, but since its restoration in 2010, women are also allowed admittance into the order. The traditional ban on eating beans, potatoes and other vegetables has also been removed. Also recipients must be minimum 25 years of age. The honor is normally granted two times a year, once during the Empango ceremony (which most often is on June 11 each year) and the other on H.M. Solomon Iguru I’s birthday on June 18. The Order is a very high honor.135

There are several unique aspects of the award that recipients of the Order receive in contrast to other world orders. First, all recipients are entitled to the style „The Most Honourable“. However, persons entitled to an existing style that supersedes „The Most Honourable“ will retain it within the Order’s records. Second, a recipient is entitled to use the title of Omujwaara Kondo. Official authorization is granted for a male recipient to translate Omujwaara Kondo into „Crown Knight“ in English and a female recipient may translate this into „Crown Dame“. Third, the post-nominal of „OOKB“ may be used after an honoree’s name, which stands for (O)rder of the (O)mujwaara (K)ondo of (B)unyoro-Kitara Kingdom.136

Persons who receive the honor are also entitled to the right to display certain heraldic privileges. By authorization of His Majesty the Omukama, all Members of the Order who desire to have heraldry are entitled to display supporters and top their helm with a basic coronet if they desire to signify their status as Members.137

In accordance with both the historical traditions of The Order of the Omujwaara Kondo and its modern statutes, the honor is inherited by the original grantee’s eldest child of the same sex at the moment of the original grantee’s death or renunciation of the honor. For male grantees, the honor passes by patrilineal primogeniture (from male to male) and for female grantees, the honor passes by matrilineal primogeniture (from female to female). See also: Sovereign Head of The Royal Order of Omujwaara Kondo and The Royal Order of Engabu.138

Royal Order of the Crown – It was former Order of Bunyoro-Kitara Kingdom (Uganda). This Order was replaced by Royal Order of Engabu (Order of the Shield) in 2010. This change was implemented, to avoid confusion between the names of the Order of the Crown and the Order of Omujwaara Kondo (Order of the Coronet Wearer). See also: Royal Order of Engabu.139

Royal Princess – Royal Princess is title of female member of Royal Family. In Bunyoro-Kitara Royal Family (Babiito Dynasty) H.R.H. Princess Masamba Nkwanzi OOKB, OEBKK, GCCK, daughter of H.M. Omukama (King) Solomon Iguru I, is bearer of this title.140

Rukirabasaija – This title means “The greatest of men”. It is one of the principal titles of the Omukama of Bunyoro-Kitara Kingdom. It is also used in Kingdom of Toro. See: Omukama.141

Ruler – “Ruler of Hoima, Masindi, Kibaale, Buliisa and Kiryandongo” (Nkyanungi, Nyakanungi) is part of the full royal title of Omukama (King) of Bunyoro-Kitara Kingdom, H.M. Rukirabasaija Agutamba Solomon Gafabusa Iguru I of Babiito Dynasty. In Nyoro language Nkyanungi or Nyakanungi  means also: „Good Ruler“. See also: Omukama, Kyabazinga.142

Rwodhi – This is title of all male descendents of Rwoth Obima (King) in Alur (Union of Alur Chiefdoms). “Rwodhi” is plural. See also: Rwoth Obima.143

Rwot – Hereditary title of the traditional ruler (Paramount Chief) of Acholi in Uganda. Since 15. January 2005, Rwot of Acholi is Acana II of the House of Payira. See also: Won Lobo; Rwoth; Rwoth Obima.144

Rwoth – This is hereditary title of the traditional ruler of Jonam (Jonam Koch) in Republic of Uganda. Rwoth of Jonam is, since 1. March 2008, Marcellino Olar Ker. See also: Rwot; Rwoth Obima.145

Rwoth Obima – Hereditary title of the traditional ruler of Alur (Union of Alur Chiefdoms) in Republic of Uganda is Rwoth Obima, Rwoth Obimo, or Rwoth. Nyathi Rwot is lower title (leader subjugated to Rwoth Obima). Since August 2000, Rwoth Obima of Alur is Rauni III . See also: Nyathi Rwot; Rwodhi; Rwot; Rwoth.146

Rwoth Obimo – See: Rwoth Obima.

Sabaganzi – Title of “the official maternal uncle of the Kabaka” in Kingdom of Buganda.147

Sekibobo – The title of the county chief of Kyagwe (Kyaggwe) in Kingdom of Buganda is Sekibobo (or Ssekiboobo).148

Sovereign Head, Grand Master and Protector of The Most Honourable Order of Omukama Chwa II Kabalega – This is part of the full royal title of Omukama (King) of Bunyoro-Kitara Kingdom, H.M. Rukirabasaija Agutamba Solomon Gafabusa Iguru I of Babiito Dynasty. See: Omukama, Most Honourable Order of Omukama Chwa II Kabalega.149

Sovereign Head of The Royal Order of Omujwaara Kondo and The Royal Order of Engabu – Part of the full royal title of Omukama (King) of Bunyoro-Kitara Kingdom, H.M. Rukirabasaija Agutamba Solomon Gafabusa Iguru I of Babiito Dynasty. See also: Omukama, Royal Order of Omujwaara Kondo, Royal Order of Engabu.150

Sovereign, Knightly and Noble Order of The Lion and Black Cross – By Royal decision of H.M. Solomon Iguru I, Omukama (King) of Bunyoro-Kitara, in 2012. are rewritten “the whole legal chapters and maintain of the Orders Order of the Crown of Thorns and Order of the Lion and the Black Cross under the Ecclesiastical jurisdiction and Patronage of The Apostolic Episcopal Church and the Royal Patronage of His Majesty Rukirabasaija Agutamba Solomon Gafabusa Iguru I; with H.M. Omukama Chwa II. Kabalega name incorporate and the name of His Majesty Rukirabasaija Agutamba Solomon Gafabusa Iguru I”.  See also: Omukama; Patron, Protector and Granter of The Sovereign, Knightly and Noble Order of The Lion and Black Cross.151

Ssaabalangira – Title of “Chief of the Royal Princes”, used in Kingdom of Buganda.152

Ssaabasajja – This is honorific style of Kabaka, ruler of Kingdom of Buganda. See also: Kabaka.153

 

 

Ssebwama – County of Busiro in Kingdom of Buganda is headed by the County Chief titled Ssebwama.154

 

 

Ssekiboobo – See: Sekibobo.

Sub-County Chiefs – See: Abagomborozi.

Sub-Parish Chiefs – See: Abatongole.

Tabingwa – This is hereditary title of the traditional rulers of Luuka in Uganda (one of the Busoga confederates). Current Tabingwa of Luuka, since, 11 February 1995, is Willington Nabwana of the House of Tabingwa.155

Traditional or cultural leader – See: Omukama.

Village Chiefs – See: Bakuru B’emigongo; Abatongole.

Wakhooli – See: Wakooli.

Wakooli – Hereditary title of the traditional rulers of Bukooli in Uganda (one of the Busoga confederates) is Wakooli or Wakhooli. Since 11. February 1995, Wakooli of Bukooli is David Muluuya Kawunye of the House of Wakoli.156

Won Lobo – Formerly, “Won Lobo” was part of title of Rwot of Acholi. It literally means “Guardian of the land”. See also: Rwot.157

Won Nyaci – This is title of the elective traditional ruler of Lango in Republic of Uganda. This title is created in 1957. Won Nyaci is “ceremonial constitutional head of the district to be elected by the district council”. Since 10. December 2005, Won Nyaci (traditional ruler) of Lango is Yosam Odur-Ebii.158

Zibondo – This is hereditary title of the traditional rulers of Bulamogi in Uganda (one of the Busoga confederates). Current Zibondo of Bulamogi, since 3. September 2008, is Edward Columbus Wambuzi of the House of Zibondo.159

Author:

Aleksandar Bačko

Sub-County Chief

Editor:

Reverend Father Deacon

Nenad M. Jovanović

Representative in Serbia

County Chief

Belgrade, Serbia 2013.

Note: this text is published for the first time at The Center for Research of Orthodox Monarchism internet presentation http://www.czipm.org

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ABOUT TITLES OF UGANDAN TRADITIONAL RULERS, ROYALTY, CHIEFS, NOBILITY AND CHIVALRY

CONFLICTS BETWEEN THE SULTANATE OF SULU AND THE DUTCH REPUBLIC AT MID-18th CENTURY

Dedicated to His Majesty Sultan Muedzul Lail Tan Kiram of Sulu

Head of the Royal House Sultanate of Sulu

Introduction

In the history of the Sultanate of Sulu, there was a number of important and often epochal events that have significantly influenced the state system and the people of the island monarchy. Neither the 18th century is no different from other periods of the past of the Sultanate of Sulu. Among the important events during this period were the conflicts of the Sultanate with the Republic of Holland.

Sultanate of Sulu

A number of islands that are surrounding the Sulu Sea, as well as parts of larger islands of Mindanao and Borneo, are the territories that have historically belonged or still belong to the Sultanate of Sulu. This area is populated by Tausug people (or: Joloano, Sulu, Suluk), which mostly belongs to the Islamic religion. Today most of these people lives in Sulu Archipelago (Sulu, Basilan, Tawi – Tawi, and many other smaller islands). There are also Tausugs in other parts of the Philippines: in the city of Manila, as well as on the islands of Palawan, Cebu (Segbu) and Mindanao. There is a certain number of this people in the province of Sabah in Malaysia. At the turn of the 20th in 21st century, there was total number of about 1 100 000 Tausugs. These people speak the language, which belongs to Austronesian language group, more precisely the Central – Philippine languages.[1]

Jolo (Sulu) appeared in Chinese historical sources as early as 13th and 14th century. At that time, trade was developed between the islands of Sulu and China. It is considered, that the Islamization of Sulu by the Chinese Muslims and Arabs began in that period.[2]

Prominent explorer and Islamic religious teacher of Arabic origin, Said Abubakar Abirin, was born in Johor on Malay Peninsula (in the present-day Malaysia). During the first half of the 15th century, he came on the islands of the archipelago of Sulu. There he married a local princess Paramisuli. After the death of his father in law Raj Baguinde, about 1450, Said Abubakar founded the powerful Sultanate of Sulu. As its first sultan, he took the ruler name Sharif Ul – Hashim.[3]

When in the year 1571. Miguel López de Legazpi on behalf of the Spanish crown won Manila, there was a establishment of colonial power in much of the Philippine Islands. However, the Spanish power and influence were not equally represented throughout the archipelago. Military units of the Sultanate of Sulu and Mindanao defeated the Spanish troops and maintain independence in the long term. Also, many mountain areas in the interior of the Philippine Islands remained virtually untouched. Spanish colonies in the Philippines were ruled by the governor, who was responsible to Viceroy of Mexico. The Spaniards considered Philippines, in administrative terms, a branch of its colonies in Latin America.[4]

Sultanate of Sulu and North Borneo

Sultanate of Sulu and North Borneo

 

 

Dutch Republic

In times of conflict between the Dutch Republic and the Sultanate of Sulu in the 18th century, this European country was a confederate republic and officially called the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands (Dutch: Zeven Verenigde Republiek der Nederlanden). The Dutch Republic was founded in year 1581, after the liberation from Spanish authorities. The Dutch provinces were previously ruled by the Habsburg Spain. In 1568. Dutch people led by William I of Orange (Willem van Oranje) revolted against the Spanish King Philip II of Habsburg. This was the beginning of a very long Eighty Years War (1568 – 1648), also called the War for Dutch independence. In 1580. some of the Dutch provinces signed the Union of Utrecht, which laid foundations for their unification. The formal declaration of independence was signed on 26 July 1581. Spain did not recognize Dutch independence until the signing of a twelve-year truce in 1609.[5]

Despite to conflicts with the Spaniards, the Dutch in that period were able to develop a very advanced state, in economic, political and military terms. It is the 17th century called the Dutch Golden Age (Dutch: Gouden Eeuw). Netherlands at that time established trade links with many overseas countries and provinces, which further led to the establishment of its colonial policies. In this way, Dutch Republic was ranked among the world powers of 17th century.[6]

The Dutch East India Company (Dutch: West-Indische Vereenigde Compagnie, VOC for short), was established in 1602. At that time, the Dutch parliament awarded the company for the first time a monopoly on 21 years of state colonies in Asia. The Dutch East India Company thus became the second international company in the world, after two years earlier had founded the British East India Company. The Dutch company had primarily commercial function, but it owned and substantial (quasi) state elements, such as the ability to wage war, and negotiates peace, establish new colonies, perform judicial functions (including the execution of convicts), minting money, etc.[7]

East India Company managed the Dutch colonies in what is now Indonesia (Dutch East India), Taiwan, Sri Lanka (Ceylon Dutch), some parts of the Indian subcontinent, South Africa and elsewhere. The first Dutch colonies on the Indonesian islands were established in the early 17th century (in Java Banten in 1603. and Jayakarta or Batavia, on the same island in 1611). Batavia, later Jakarta, was the center of the colonial Dutch East India Company.[8]

The Dutch also founded the West India Company (Dutch: Geoctroyeerde Westindische Compagnie, abbreviated WIC) in 1621. It has administered in the similar way their possessions in South America, the Caribbean, North America and in parts of Africa.[9]

The Spanish Empire

The third important factor in the Sulu – Dutch conflicts was the Spanish Empire. One of the first colonial European powers, began its overseas expansion during the 15th century. When Christopher Columbus in 1492. discovered America, he immediately proclaimed the Spanish rule in the new territory. The so-called Spanish Golden Age (Spanish: El Siglo de Oro) began right after the end of the Reconquista (1492), and the unification of Castile and Aragon. In the early 16th century Habsburgs came to power in Spain. They ruled the country at the time of its greatest progress.[10]

During the 16th and 17th century the Spanish were significantly expanding their overseas possessions. They were the leading European colonial power of that period. Under their rule was large part of the South American continent, Central America, as well as substantial parts of North America. From America, across the Pacific, their power spread to the Philippines. There were also Spanish colonies in Africa. There were some of European countries and regions under the supreme authority of the Spanish crown in certain times, for example: Netherlands, Milan and Kingdom of Sicily.[11]

Ferdinand Magellan landed in the Philippines in 1521. and declared the supremacy of the Spanish king Charles I of Habsburg over these islands. Magellan was killed shortly after, at Philippine Island Mactan, in conflict with the army led by the local ruler, datu Lapu – Lapu (datu is noble or ruler title in Southeast Asia). Spaniards did not returned to the Philippines until 1543, when they were led by Lopez de Villalobos. Then they actually established their power on the part of the archipelago, which they called after king Philip II of Habsburg.[12]

The background of the conflict

The military conflict between the forces of the Sultanate of Sulu and the Netherlands is necessary to consider in broader historical context. Firstly, it was caused by Dutch colonialism, which was typical for European powers of that time.[13]

Sultanate of Sulu was among rare non-European countries that were strongly resisted European colonialism in the mid-18th century. It controlled the trade routes and waterways in the Sulu Sea and the Celebes Sea, which are linking Sulu Archipelago, north coastal areas of Borneo, southern coast of the island of Mindanao, and rest of Philippine Archipelago. These waterways were of great trading and strategic importance.[14]

Long wars and the struggle for colonial supremacy in the East between the Netherlands and Spain, were of great importance for the Dutch – Sulu conflict. These Dutch – Spanish wars were dating, with occasional interruptions, ever since the establishment of the Dutch Republic.[15]

There were different kinds of relationships between the Sultanate of Sulu and the Netherlands. It is known that the Dutch in the in 17th century attacked Jolo, but at that time as allies of the Sultanate of Sulu. The attack was directed against the Spanish occupation troops, which were located in the Jolo. The Dutch, along with troops of Sulu, in July 1645. conducted a combined artillery and infantry attack on a Spanish fort in the town. This action led to the withdrawal of the Spaniards from Jolo.[16]

The course of the conflict

In the period leading up to the clash with the Dutch, Sultan Alimud Din I originally had capital in the island Dungun Tawi – Tawi (Sulu Archipelago). In year 1736, the seat of his court was transferred from there to Jolo, the old capital of Sultanate of Sulu.[17]

There are recorded opinions of some historians, whose assurance we could not find in other sources, that in 1744. and 1746. the Dutch East India Company attacked Jolo by cannons from its ships.[18]

In mid-18th century Dutch invaded and occupied Maluso on the island of Basilan in the Sulu Archipelago. Soon after, in 1746, they have established their base in Maluso, the fortress which they called Port Holland.[19]

The Dutch attacked Taguima on the island of Basilan in 1747, with two of their ships. Their troops were defeated by one of the commanders of the Sultan of Sulu, known to the sources by name Bantilan. He was able to permanently oust the Dutch East India Company troops from Port Holland. On this occasion, fort was completely burned, but its name is still known as part of the settlement Malusa. The rest of the Dutch withdrew in Batavia on Java.[20]

Consequences

Shortly after the victory over the Dutch, namely in 1749, datu Bantilan overthrows his elder brother Alimud Din I and became the new Sultan of Sulu. His ruler name was Muizud Din I. The former sultan was forced to withdrew to the Taguima on the island of Basilan, together with members of his immediate family and loyal followers. After that, in 1750, Alimud Din I moved to Manila, where he was greeted with all royal honors. At his return to Sulu, in Zamboanga on Mindanao island, because of the alleged conspiracy, he was captured by the Spaniards, and sent into captivity in Manila, specifically in the local Fort Santiago. Alimud Din I returned on the throne in 1764. and held position of Sultan of Sulu until 1773.[21]

Because of the decisive struggle Sultanate of Sulu and its people for freedom and independence, the pressure of the Dutch on this monarchy was significantly reduced. The Dutch held their own territory in the Dutch East Indies long after these events, until the Second World War and the period immediately after it.[22]

Clashes between the Spaniards and the Sultanate of Sulu continued shortly after this period. Both sides were attacking and devastating the enemy strongholds. Further developments in relations between the Sultanate of Sulu and the Spanish Empire are beyond the scope of this paper.[23]

Conclusion

The conflict between the Sultanate of Sulu and the Netherlands in the 18th century had its main roots in the expansionism of the European powers in previous centuries. This expansionism was reflected not only by winning the non-European territories and the capturing of local government and tribal organizations, but also in intense fighting between the colonial powers at the global level. A significant influence on the background of this war had a long, intense conflict of interest between the Netherlands and the Spanish Empire.

During the period of a few years, as the conflict lasted, there were two main phases. The first is the Dutch attack on the Sultanate of Sulu, when the initiative was in the hands of the Dutch East India Company. The culmination of this phase was the establishment of the Dutch fort and base on the island of Basilan. The second phase, in which the forces of the Sultanate of Sulu had the initiative, led to the defeat of the Dutch East India Company forces in the Sulu archipelago, destruction of Port Holland, expulsion of the Dutch, and minimizing of their impact on the area.

Internally, this conflict to some extent influenced the temporary change of government of Sulu. Only after a number of years, and the great difficulties, Sultan Alimud Din I managed to return to the throne of this island monarchy.

ALEKSANDAR BAČKO

Belgrade, 2012.

Sources and literature

[1] Barbara A. West, Encyclopedia of the peoples of Asia and Oceania, New York 2009, 788; Alexander Adelaar, Nikolaus P. Himmelmann, The Austronesian Languages of Asia and Madagascar, New York 2005, 4 – 5; James J. Fox, Clifford Sather, Origins, Ancestry and Alliance – Explorations in Austronesian Ethnography, Canberra 2006, 319 – 331.

[2] Geoffrey C. Gunn, History Without Borders, The Making of an Asian World Region, 1000 – 1800, Hong Kong 2011. (further: Gunn), 93.

[3] Maria Christine N. Halili, Philippine history, Manila 2004, (further: Halili), 52; Ahmad Ibrahim, Sharon Siddique, Yasmin Hussain, Readings on Islam in Southeast Asia, Institute of Southeast Asian studies, Singapore 1985. (further: Ibrahim, Siddique, Hussain), 50, 52, 55; Hilario Milijon Gomez, The Moro rebellion and the search for peace, 2000. (further: Gomez), 16; Gunn, 93.

[4] Svet u ekspanziji, Ilustrovana istorija sveta I – IV, Treći tom, Beograd – Ljubljana 1984. (in Serbian), 242; Emma Helen Blair, The Philippine Islands, 1493-1803 Volume III, 1569-1576, 2006, 3, 5, 11.

[5] Maarten Prak, The Dutch Republic in the Seventeenth Century – The Golden Age, New York 2005. (further: Prak), 20 – 21; Wouter Troost, William III the Stadholder – King, A Political Biography, 2005, 1 – 2; J. L. Price, The Dutch Republic in the Seventeenth Century, New York – Hong Kong 1998, 22 – 23, 31; Lionel Bently, Uma Suthersanen, Paul Torremans, Global Copyright – Three Hundred Years Since the Statute of Anne, from 1709. to Cyberspace, 91.

[6] Prak, 1; Price, 152; R. Po-Chia Hsia, Henk F. K. Van Nierop, Calvinism and Religious Toleration in the Dutch Golden Age, Cambridge 2004, 2, 5, 9, 53, 87, 174.

[7] Ella Gepken – Jager, Gerard van Solinge, Levinus Timmerman, VOC 1602 – 2002,  400 Years of Company Law, Law of Business and Finance, Vol. 6, Deventer 2005. (further: Gepken – Jager, van Solinge, Timmerman), XII, 47, 54 – 55, 163, 224, 230 – 232, 258.

[8] Gepken – Jager, van Solinge, Timmerman, 111, 232; Robert Parthesius, Dutch Ships in Tropical Waters – The Development of the Dutch East India Company (VOC) shipping network in Asia 1595 – 1660, Amsterdam 2010. (further: Parthesius), 12 – 13, 46, 114, 119 – 120, 137, 140, 160, 170.

[9] Gepken – Jager, van Solinge, Timmerman, 67 – 68, 164 – 165, 173, 175.

[10] Chiyo Ishikawa, Spain In The Age Of Exploration, 1492 – 1819, Seattle – Singapore 2004. (further: Ishikawa), 50 – 53, 97; Anthony J. Cascardi, Ideologies of History in the Spanish Golden Age, Pennsylvania State University 1997, 53 – 54, 60.

[11] Ishikawa, 23, 50, 60, 87, 89.

[12] Ishikawa, 60; Donald F. Lach, Asia in the Making of Europe, Vol. I, The Century of Discovery, Book 2, Cicago 1994, 634 – 635, 642 – 643.

[13] Gepken – Jager, van Solinge, Timmerman, 88, 112; Parthesius, 40, 99.

[14] Gunn, 79, 94, 99, 102, 106, 109, 152.

[15] Gepken – Jager, van Solinge, Timmerman, 162 – 163.

[16] César Adib Majul, Muslims in the Philippines, 1973. (further: Majul), 155; Association of South-East Asian Studies in the United Kingdom (ASEASUK) news, 15 – 19, Centre for South-East Asian Studies, University of Hull, Hull 1994, 38; Gregorio F. Zaide, The Philippines since pre-Spanish times, Volume 2. – The Philippines since the British invasion, Philippine Education Company, 1957, 314; Historical calendar, National Historical Commission, 1970, 121.

[17] Majul, 21.

[18] Data from internet presentation Wikipedia in English (internet address: en.wikipedia.org), article History of Basilan (further: History of Basilan)

[19] History of Basilan; Data from internet presentation Muslim Mindanao (internet address: http://www.muslimmindanao.ph)

[20] Congressional edition, 4240, U.S. Congress, 1902. (further: Congressional edition), 178 – 179.

[21] Halili, 125; Ibrahim, Siddique, Hussain, 55; Gomez, 21; David P. Chandler, David Joel Steinberg, In search of Southeast Asia, a modern history, University of Hawaii 1987, 94; Congressional edition, 178 – 179; History of Basilan.

[22] Henry E. J. Stanley, The Philippine islands, Moluccas, Siam, Cambodia, Japan, and China, at the close of the sixteenth century, London 1868, 361 – 362; Gordon L. Rottman, World War II, Pacific Island Guide, 2002, 154, 160, 165, 198.

[23] Halili, 126; History of Basilan.

CONFLICTS BETWEEN THE SULTANATE OF SULU AND THE DUTCH REPUBLIC AT MID-18th CENTURY